Volume 98, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645
Preview this article:
Zoom in

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis: 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH), Page 1 of 1

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/14761645/98/4/tpmd1888751-1.gif

There is no abstract available for this article.
Use the preview function to the left.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Alonso-Coello P, Schünemann HJ, GRADE Working Group; , 2008. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 336: 924926. [Google Scholar]
  2. Coyle CM, 2012. Neurocysticercosis: neglected but not forgotten. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1500. [Google Scholar]
  3. Garcia HH, Nash TE, Del Brutto OH, , 2014. Clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of neurocysticercosis. Lancet Neurol 13: 12021215. [Google Scholar]
  4. Ndimubanzi PC, Carabin H, Budke CM, Nguyen H, Qian YJ, Rainwater E, Dickey M, Reynolds S, Stoner JA, , 2010. A systematic review of the frequency of neurocyticercosis with a focus on people with epilepsy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e870. [Google Scholar]
  5. O’Neal SE, Flecker RH, , 2015. Hospitalization frequency and charges for neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003–2012. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 969976. [Google Scholar]
  6. O’Keefe KA, Eberhard ML, Shafir SC, Wilkins P, Ash LR, Sorvillo FJ, , 2015. Cysticercosis-related hospitalizations in the United States, 1998–2011. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92: 354359. [Google Scholar]
  7. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Schunemann HJ, Tugwell P, Knottnerus A, , 2011. GRADE guidelines: a new series of articles in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. J Clin Epidemiol 64: 380382. [Google Scholar]
  8. Del Brutto OH, , 2014. Neurocysticercosis. Neurohospitalist 4: 205212. [Google Scholar]
  9. Ong S, Talan DA, Moran GJ, Mower W, Newdow M, Tsang VC, Pinner RW, EMERGEncy ID NET Study Group; , 2002. Neurocysticercosis in radiographically imaged seizure patients in U.S. emergency departments. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 608613. [Google Scholar]
  10. Serpa JA, Graviss EA, Kass JS, White AC, Jr, 2011. Neurocysticercosis in Houston, Texas: an update. Medicine (Baltimore) 90: 8186. [Google Scholar]
  11. Rangel-Castilla L, Serpa JA, Gopinath SP, Graviss EA, Diaz-Marchan P, White AC, Jr, 2009. Contemporary neurosurgical approaches to neurocysticercosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 373378. [Google Scholar]
  12. Rajshekhar V, Chandy MJ, , 1997. Validation of diagnostic criteria for solitary cerebral cysticercus granuloma in patients presenting with seizures. Acta Neurol Scand 96: 7681. [Google Scholar]
  13. Del Brutto OH, 2001. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis. Neurology 57: 177183. [Google Scholar]
  14. Lerner A, Shiroishi MS, Zee CS, Law M, Go JL, , 2012. Imaging of neurocysticercosis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 22: 659676. [Google Scholar]
  15. Hernandez RD, Duran BB, Lujambio PS, , 2014. Magnetic resonance imaging in neurocysticercosis. Top Magn Reson Imaging 23: 191198. [Google Scholar]
  16. Tsang VC, Brand JA, Boyer AE, , 1989. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay and glycoprotein antigens for diagnosing human cysticercosis (Taenia solium). J Infect Dis 159: 5059. [Google Scholar]
  17. Del Brutto OH, , 2012. Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, revisited. Pathog Glob Health 106: 299304. [Google Scholar]
  18. Proano-Narvaez JV, Meza-Lucas A, Mata-Ruiz O, Garcia-Jeronimo RC, Correa D, , 2002. Laboratory diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis: double-blind comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electroimmunotransfer blot assay. J Clin Microbiol 40: 21152118. [Google Scholar]
  19. Carod JF, Randrianarison M, Razafimahefa J, Ramahefarisoa RM, Rakotondrazaka M, Debruyne M, Dautigny M, Cazal P, Andriantseheno ML, Charles ER, , 2012. Evaluation of the performance of 5 commercialized enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Taenia solium antibodies and for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 72: 8589. [Google Scholar]
  20. Wilson M, Bryan RT, Fried JA, Ware DA, Schantz PM, Pilcher JB, Tsang VC, , 1991. Clinical evaluation of the cysticercosis enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot in patients with neurocysticercosis. J Infect Dis 164: 10071009. [Google Scholar]
  21. Gabriël S, Blocher J, Dorny P, Abatih EN, Schmutzhard E, Ombay M, Mathias B, Winkler AS, , 2012. Added value of antigen ELISA in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in resource poor settings. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1851. [Google Scholar]
  22. Nguekam Zoli AP, Ongolo-Zogo P, Dorny P, Brandt J, Geerts S, , 2003. Follow-up of neurocysticercosis patients after treatment using an antigen detection ELISA. Parasite 10: 6568. [Google Scholar]
  23. Fleury A, 2007. Detection of HP10 antigen in serum for diagnosis and follow-up of subarachnoidal and intraventricular human neurocysticercosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 78: 970974. [Google Scholar]
  24. Garcia HH, , 2007. Serological diagnosis and follow-up of severe neurocysticercosis using HP10 antigen detection. Nat Clin Pract Neurol 3: 488489. [Google Scholar]
  25. Nash TE, Garcia HH, , 2011. Diagnosis and treatment of neurocysticercosis. Nat Rev Neurol 7: 584594. [Google Scholar]
  26. Govindappa SS, Narayanan JP, Krishnamoorthy VM, Shastry CH, Balasubramaniam A, Krishna SS, , 2000. Improved detection of intraventricular cysticercal cysts with the use of three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state MR sequences. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 21: 679684. [Google Scholar]
  27. Hingwala D, Chatterjee S, Kesavadas C, Thomas B, Kapilamoorthy TR, , 2011. Applications of 3D CISS sequence for problem solving in neuroimaging. Indian J Radiol Imaging 21: 9097. [Google Scholar]
  28. Carrillo Mezo R, Lara Garcia J, Arroyo M, Fleury A, , 2015. Relevance of 3D magnetic resonance imaging sequences in diagnosing basal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis. Acta Trop 152: 6065. [Google Scholar]
  29. Callacondo D, Garcia HH, Gonzales I, Escalante D, Nash TE, , 2012. High frequency of spinal involvement in patients with basal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis. Neurology 78: 13941400. [Google Scholar]
  30. Lewinsohn DM, 2017. Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical practice guidelines: diagnosis of tuberculosis in adults and children. Clin Infect Dis 64: 111115. [Google Scholar]
  31. 2000. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. American Thoracic Society. MMWR Recomm Rep 49: 151. [Google Scholar]
  32. Sorvillo FJ, Waterman SH, Richards FO, Schantz PM, , 1992. Cysticercosis surveillance: locally acquired and travel-related infections and detection of intestinal tapeworm carriers in Los Angeles County. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47: 365371. [Google Scholar]
  33. SmithKline Beecham. Product Information. Albenza (Albendazole). Philadelphia, PA: SmithKline Beecham.
  34. Gongora-Rivera F, Soto-Hernández JL, González Esquivel D, Cook HJ, Márquez-Caraveo C, Hernández Dávila R, Santos-Zambrano J, , 2006. Albendazole trial at 15 or 30 mg/kg/day for subarachnoid and intraventricular cysticercosis. Neurology 66: 436438. [Google Scholar]
  35. Bayer. Product Information. Biltricide (Praziquantel). West Haven, CT: Bayer.
  36. Garcia HH, 2014. Efficacy of combined antiparasitic therapy with praziquantel and albendazole for neurocysticercosis: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis 14: 687695. [Google Scholar]
  37. Garcia HH, 2016. Cysticidal efficacy of combined treatment with praziquantel and albendazole for parenchymal brain cysticercosis. Clin Infect Dis 62: 13751379. [Google Scholar]
  38. Mitre E, Talaat KR, Sperling MR, Nash TE, , 2007. Methotrexate as a corticosteroid-sparing agent in complicated neurocysticercosis. Clin Infect Dis 44: 549553. [Google Scholar]
  39. Del Brutto O, Sotelo J, Roman GC, , 1998. Neurocysticercosis: A Clinical Handbook.
  40. Del Brutto OH, Roos KL, Coffey CS, Garcia HH, , 2006. Meta-analysis: cysticidal drugs for neurocysticercosis: albendazole and praziquantel. Ann Intern Med 145: 4351. [Google Scholar]
  41. Baird RA, Wiebe S, Zunt JR, Halperin JJ, Gronseth G, Roos KL, , 2013. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis: report of the guideline development subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 80: 14241429. [Google Scholar]
  42. Mitchell WG, Crawford TO, , 1988. Intraparenchymal cerebral cysticercosis in children: diagnosis and treatment. Pediatrics 82: 7682. [Google Scholar]
  43. Carpio A, Santillan F, Leon P, Flores C, Hauser WA, , 1995. Is the course of neurocysticercosis modified by treatment with antihelminthic agents? Arch Intern Med 155: 19821988. [Google Scholar]
  44. Garcia HH, Pretell EJ, Gilman RH, Martinez SM, Moulton LH, Del Brutto OH, Herrera G, Evans CA, Gonzalez AE, Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru; , 2004. A trial of antiparasitic treatment to reduce the rate of seizures due to cerebral cysticercosis. N Engl J Med 350: 249258. [Google Scholar]
  45. Carpio A, Kelvin EA, Bagiella E, Leslie D, Leon P, Andrews H, Hauser WA, Ecuadorian Neurocysticercosis Group; , 2008. Effects of albendazole treatment on neurocysticercosis: a randomised controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79: 10501055. [Google Scholar]
  46. Romo ML, Wyka K, Carpio A, Leslie D, Andrews H, Bagiella E, Hauser WA, Kelvin EA, Ecuadorian Neurocysticercosis Group; , 2015. The effect of albendazole treatment on seizure outcomes in patients with symptomatic neurocysticercosis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 109: 738746. [Google Scholar]
  47. Guo DM, Xie SP, Jia JP, , 2003. Therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel, albendazole and a combination of the two drugs in cysticercosis. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 21: 187188. [Google Scholar]
  48. Carpio A, Hauser WA, , 2002. Prognosis for seizure recurrence in patients with newly diagnosed neurocysticercosis. Neurology 59: 17301734. [Google Scholar]
  49. deGhetaldi LD, Norman RM, Douville AW, Jr, 1983. Cerebral cysticercosis treated biphasically with dexamethasone and praziquantel. Ann Intern Med 99: 179181. [Google Scholar]
  50. Garcia HH, Gonzales I, Lescano AG, Bustos JA, Pretell EJ, Saavedra H, Nash TE, Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru; , 2014. Enhanced steroid dosing reduces seizures during antiparasitic treatment for cysticercosis and early after. Epilepsia 55: 14521459. [Google Scholar]
  51. Sharma M, Singh T, Mathew A, , 2015. Antiepileptic drugs for seizure control in people with neurocysticercosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD009027. [Google Scholar]
  52. Del Brutto OH, , 1994. Prognostic factors for seizure recurrence after withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs in patients with neurocysticercosis. Neurology 44: 17061709. [Google Scholar]
  53. Singhi P, Suthar R, Deo B, Malhi P, Khandelwal NK, , 2017. Long term clinical and radiologic outcome in 500 children with parenchymal neurocysticercosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 36: 549555. [Google Scholar]
  54. Rajshekhar V, Jeyaseelan L, , 2004. Seizure outcome in patients with a solitary cerebral cysticercus granuloma. Neurology 62: 22362240. [Google Scholar]
  55. Singh G, Rajshekhar V, Murthy JM, Prabhakar S, Modi M, Khandelwal N, Garcia HH, , 2010. A diagnostic and therapeutic scheme for a solitary cysticercus granuloma. Neurology 75: 22362245. [Google Scholar]
  56. Bittencourt PR, Gracia CM, Martins R, Fernandes AG, Diekmann HW, Jung W, , 1992. Phenytoin and carbamazepine decreased oral bioavailability of praziquantel. Neurology 42: 492496. [Google Scholar]
  57. Lanchote VL, Garcia FS, Dreossi SA, Takayanagui OM, , 2002. Pharmacokinetic interaction between albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers and antiepileptic drugs in patients with neurocysticercosis. Ther Drug Monit 24: 338345. [Google Scholar]
  58. Thussu A, Arora A, Prabhakar S, Lal V, Sawhney IM, , 2002. Acute symptomatic seizures due to single CT lesions: how long to treat with antiepileptic drugs? Neurol India 50: 141144. [Google Scholar]
  59. Verma A, Misra S, , 2006. Outcome of short-term antiepileptic treatment in patients with solitary cerebral cysticercus granuloma. Acta Neurol Scand 113: 174177. [Google Scholar]
  60. Gupta RK, Kumar R, Chawla S, Pradhan S, , 2002. Demonstration of scolex within calcified cysticercus cyst: its possible role in the pathogenesis of perilesional edema. Epilepsia 43: 15021508. [Google Scholar]
  61. Thussu A, Chattopadhyay A, Sawhney IM, Khandelwal N, , 2008. Albendazole therapy for single small enhancing CT lesions (SSECTL) in the brain in epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79: 272275. [Google Scholar]
  62. Rajshekhar V, , 1998. Incidence and significance of adverse effects of albendazole therapy in patients with a persistent solitary cysticercus granuloma. Acta Neurol Scand 98: 121123. [Google Scholar]
  63. Rajshekhar V, Oommen A, , 2001. Utility of the cysticercus immunoblot in a patient with an atypical solitary cerebral cysticercus granuloma. Neurol India 49: 7577. [Google Scholar]
  64. Pretell EJ, Garcia HH, Custodio N, Padilla C, Alvarado M, Gilman RH, Martinez M, , 2000. Short regimen of praziquantel in the treatment of single brain enhancing lesions. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 102: 215218. [Google Scholar]
  65. Alarcon F, Tolosa E, Munoz E, , 2001. Focal limb dystonia in a patient with a cerebellar mass. Arch Neurol 58: 11251127. [Google Scholar]
  66. Chaurasia RN, Garg RK, Agarwall A, Kohli N, Verma R, Singh MK, Shukla R, , 2010. Three day albendazole therapy in patients with a solitary cysticercus granuloma: a randomized double blind placebo controlled study. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 41: 517525. [Google Scholar]
  67. de Souza A, Nalini A, Kovoor JM, Yeshraj G, Siddalingaiah HS, Thennarasu K, , 2011. Perilesional gliosis around solitary cerebral parenchymal cysticerci and long-term seizure outcome: a prospective study using serial magnetization transfer imaging. Epilepsia 52: 19181927. [Google Scholar]
  68. Gogia S, Talukdar B, Choudhury V, Arora BS, , 2003. Neurocysticercosis in children: clinical findings and response to albendazole therapy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in newly diagnosed cases. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 416421. [Google Scholar]
  69. Singhi P, Jain V, Khandelwal N, , 2004. Corticosteroids versus albendazole for treatment of single small enhancing computed tomographic lesions in children with neurocysticercosis. J Child Neurol 19: 323327. [Google Scholar]
  70. Kalra V, Dua T, Kumar V, , 2003. Efficacy of albendazole and short-course dexamethasone treatment in children with 1 or 2 ring-enhancing lesions of neurocysticercosis: a randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr 143: 111114. [Google Scholar]
  71. Kaur S, Singhi P, Singhi S, Khandelwal N, , 2009. Combination therapy with albendazole and praziquantel versus albendazole alone in children with seizures and single lesion neurocysticercosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled double blind trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J 28: 403406. [Google Scholar]
  72. Murthy JM, , 2010. Neurological complication of dengue infection. Neurol India 58: 581584. [Google Scholar]
  73. Otte WM, Singla M, Sander JW, Singh G, , 2013. Drug therapy for solitary cysticercus granuloma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurology 80: 152162. [Google Scholar]
  74. Kishore D, Misra S, , 2007. Short course of oral prednisolone on disappearance of lesion and seizure recurrence in patients of solitary cysticercal granuloma with single small enhancing CT lesion: an open label randomized prospective study. J Assoc Physicians India 55: 419424. [Google Scholar]
  75. Zhao BC, 2016. Albendazole and corticosteroids for the treatment of solitary cysticercus granuloma: a network meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004418. [Google Scholar]
  76. Henneberg R, , 1912. Die tierischen parasiten des zentralnerven-systems. M. Lewandowsky, ed. Handbuch der Neurologie. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Von Julius Springer, 69.
  77. Sotelo J, Guerrero V, Rubio F, , 1985. Neurocysticercosis: a new classification based on active and inactive forms. A study of 753 cases. Arch Intern Med 145: 442445. [Google Scholar]
  78. Murthy VN, , 1998. Synaptic plasticity: step-wise strengthening. Curr Biol 8: R650R653. [Google Scholar]
  79. Cukiert A, Puglia P, Scapolan HB, Vilela MM, Marino Júnior R, , 1994. Congruence of the topography of intracranial calcifications and epileptic foci. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 52: 289294. [Google Scholar]
  80. Nash TE, Pretell EJ, Lescano AG, Bustos JA, Gilman RH, Gonzalez AE, Garcia HH, Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru; , 2008. Perilesional brain oedema and seizure activity in patients with calcified neurocysticercosis: a prospective cohort and nested case-control study. Lancet Neurol 7: 10991105. [Google Scholar]
  81. Nash T, , 2012. Edema surrounding calcified intracranial cysticerci: clinical manifestations, natural history, and treatment. Pathog Glob Health 106: 275279. [Google Scholar]
  82. Moyano LM, 2016. High prevalence of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis in an endemic rural community in Peru. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0005130. [Google Scholar]
  83. Fujita T, Fujii H, , 2013. Efficient isolation of specific genomic regions and identification of associated proteins by engineered DNA-binding molecule-mediated chromatin immunoprecipitation (enChIP) using CRISPR. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 439: 132136. [Google Scholar]
  84. Mejia R, Nash TE, , 2013. Corticosteroid withdrawal precipitates perilesional edema around calcified Taenia solium cysts. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 919923. [Google Scholar]
  85. Gupta RK, 2013. T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MR evaluation of different stages of neurocysticercosis and its relationship with serum MMP-9 expression. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 34: 9971003. [Google Scholar]
  86. Ooi WW, Wijemanne S, Thomas CB, Quezado M, Brown CR, Nash TE, , 2011. Short report: a calcified Taenia solium granuloma associated with recurrent perilesional edema causing refractory seizures: histopathological features. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85: 460463. [Google Scholar]
  87. Nash TE, Bartelt LA, Korpe PS, Lopes B, Houpt ER, , 2014. Calcified neurocysticercus, perilesional edema, and histologic inflammation. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 318321. [Google Scholar]
  88. Gupta M, Agarwal P, Khwaja GA, Chowdhury D, Sharma B, Bansal J, Anand S, , 2002. Randomized prospective study of outcome of short term antiepileptic treatment in small single enhancing CT lesion in brain. Neurol India 50: 145147. [Google Scholar]
  89. Pradhan S, Kathuria MK, Gupta RK, , 2000. Perilesional gliosis and seizure outcome: a study based on magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging in patients with neurocysticercosis. Ann Neurol 48: 181187. [Google Scholar]
  90. Singh G, Chowdhary AK, , 2014. Epilepsy surgery in context of neurocysticercosis. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 17 (Suppl 1): S65S68. [Google Scholar]
  91. Bianchin MM, 2013. Cognitive and surgical outcome in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis plus neurocysticercosis: a cohort study. PLoS One 8: e60949. [Google Scholar]
  92. Salgado P, Rojas R, Sotelo J, , 1997. Cysticercosis. Clinical classification based on imaging studies. Arch Intern Med 157: 19911997. [Google Scholar]
  93. Kelley R, Duong DH, Locke GE, , 2002. Characteristics of ventricular shunt malfunctions among patients with neurocysticercosis. Neurosurgery 50: 757761, discussion 761–762. [Google Scholar]
  94. Neyaz Z, Patwari SS, Paliwal VK, , 2012. Role of FIESTA and SWAN sequences in diagnosis of intraventricular neurocysticercosis. Neurol India 60: 646647. [Google Scholar]
  95. Mont’Alverne Filho FE, Machado Ldos R, Lucato LT, Leite CC, , 2011. The role of 3D volumetric MR sequences in diagnosing intraventricular neurocysticercosis: preliminar results. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 69: 7478. [Google Scholar]
  96. Torres-Corzo J, Rodriguez-della Vecchia R, Rangel-Castilla L, , 2006. Bruns syndrome caused by intraventricular neurocysticercosis treated using flexible endoscopy. J Neurosurg 104: 746748. [Google Scholar]
  97. Colli BO, Carlotti CG, Jr Assirati JA, Jr Machado HR, Valenca M, Amato MC, , 2002. Surgical treatment of cerebral cysticercosis: long-term results and prognostic factors. Neurosurg Focus 12: e3. [Google Scholar]
  98. Colli BO, Martelli N, Assirati Júnior JA, Machado HR, Salvarani CP, Sassoli VP, Forjaz SV, , 1994. Cysticercosis of the central nervous system. I. Surgical treatment of cerebral cysticercosis: a 23 years experience in the Hospital das Clinicas of Ribeirao Preto Medical School. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 52: 166186. [Google Scholar]
  99. Husain M, Jha DK, Rastogi M, Husain N, Gupta RK, , 2007. Neuro-endoscopic management of intraventricular neurocysticercosis (NCC). Acta Neurochir (Wien) 149: 341346. [Google Scholar]
  100. Psarros TG, Coimbra C, , 2004. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for patients with hydrocephalus and fourth ventricular cysticercosis: a review of five cases. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 47: 346349. [Google Scholar]
  101. Singh I, Haris M, Husain M, Husain N, Rastogi M, Gupta RK, , 2008. Role of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in patients with communicating hydrocephalus: an evaluation by MR ventriculography. Neurosurg Rev 31: 319325. [Google Scholar]
  102. Jimenez-Vazquez OH, Nagore N, , 2013. Endoscopic evidence of ventricular and cisternal inflammatory changes after intraoperative cysticercal rupture during endoscopic third-ventriculostomy removal. Br J Neurosurg 27: 137138. [Google Scholar]
  103. Proano JV, Torres-Corzo J, Rodriguez-Della Vecchia R, Guizar-Sahagun G, Rangel-Castilla L, , 2009. Intraventricular and subarachnoid basal cisterns neurocysticercosis: a comparative study between traditional treatment versus neuroendoscopic surgery. Childs Nerv Syst 25: 14671475. [Google Scholar]
  104. Goel RK, Ahmad FU, Vellimana AK, Suri A, Chandra PS, Kumar R, Sharma BS, Mahapatra AK, , 2008. Endoscopic management of intraventricular neurocysticercosis. J Clin Neurosci 15: 10961101. [Google Scholar]
  105. Bergsneider M, , 1999. Endoscopic removal of cysticercal cysts within the fourth ventricle. Technical note. J Neurosurg 91: 340345. [Google Scholar]
  106. Suri A, Goel RK, Ahmad FU, Vellimana AK, Sharma BS, Mahapatra AK, , 2008. Transventricular, transaqueductal scope-in-scope endoscopic excision of fourth ventricular neurocysticercosis: a series of 13 cases and a review. J Neurosurg Pediatr 1: 3539. [Google Scholar]
  107. Proano JV, Madrazo I, Garcia L, Garcia-Torres E, Correa D, , 1997. Albendazole and praziquantel treatment in neurocysticercosis of the fourth ventricle. J Neurosurg 87: 2933. [Google Scholar]
  108. Cuetter AC, Garcia-Bobadilla J, Guerra LG, Martinez FM, Kaim B, , 1997. Neurocysticercosis: focus on intraventricular disease. Clin Infect Dis 24: 157164. [Google Scholar]
  109. Bandres JC, White AC, Jr Samo T, Murphy EC, Harris RL, , 1992. Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis: report of five cases and review of management. Clin Infect Dis 15: 799811. [Google Scholar]
  110. Sotelo J, Izurieta M, Arriada N, , 2001. Treatment of hydrocephalus in adults by placement of an open ventricular shunt. J Neurosurg 94: 873879. [Google Scholar]
  111. Rajshekhar V, , 2010. Surgical management of neurocysticercosis. Int J Surg 8: 100104. [Google Scholar]
  112. Suastegui Roman RA, Soto-Hernandez JL, Sotelo J, , 1996. Effects of prednisone on ventriculoperitoneal shunt function in hydrocephalus secondary to cysticercosis: a preliminary study. J Neurosurg 84: 629633. [Google Scholar]
  113. Khade P, Lemos RS, Toussaint LG, , 2013. What is the utility of postoperative antihelminthic therapy after resection for intraventricular neurocysticercosis? World Neurosurg 79: 558567. [Google Scholar]
  114. Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH, Bernal T, Rodriguez S, Pretell EJ, Azcurra O, Parkhouse RM, Tsang VC, Harrison LJ, Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru; , 2002. Circulating parasite antigen in patients with hydrocephalus secondary to neurocysticercosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 427430. [Google Scholar]
  115. Proano JV, Madrazo I, Avelar F, Lopez-Felix B, Diaz G, Grijalva I, , 2001. Medical treatment for neurocysticercosis characterized by giant subarachnoid cysts. N Engl J Med 345: 879885. [Google Scholar]
  116. Fleury A, Carrillo-Mezo R, Flisser A, Sciutto E, Corona T, , 2011. Subarachnoid basal neurocysticercosis: a focus on the most severe form of the disease. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 9: 123133. [Google Scholar]
  117. Sotelo J, Del Brutto OH, , 1987. Therapy of neurocysticercosis. Childs Nerv Syst 3: 208211. [Google Scholar]
  118. Cardenas G, Carrillo-Mezo R, Jung H, Sciutto E, Hernandez JL, Fleury A, , 2010. Subarachnoidal neurocysticercosis non-responsive to cysticidal drugs: a case series. BMC Neurol 10: 16. [Google Scholar]
  119. Oka Y, Fukui K, Shoda D, Abe T, Kumon Y, Sakaki S, Torii M, , 1996. Cerebral cysticercosis manifesting as hydrocephalus—case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 36: 654658. [Google Scholar]
  120. Alarcon F, Vanormelingen K, Moncayo J, Vinan I, , 1992. Cerebral cysticercosis as a risk factor for stroke in young and middle-aged people. Stroke 23: 15631565. [Google Scholar]
  121. Alarcon F, Hidalgo F, Moncayo J, Vinan I, Duenas G, , 1992. Cerebral cysticercosis and stroke. Stroke 23: 224228. [Google Scholar]
  122. Del Brutto OH, Lama J, , 2013. The importance of neurocysticercosis in stroke in rural areas of a developing Latin American country. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 374375. [Google Scholar]
  123. Barinagarrementeria F, Cantu C, , 1992. Neurocysticercosis as a cause of stroke. Stroke 23: 11801181. [Google Scholar]
  124. Arauz A, Ruiz-Navarro F, Silos H, Vargas-González JC, Arguelles-Morales N, Reyes M, Ruiz-Franco A, Rivera A, Fleury A, , 2013. Concurrent asymptomatic inflammatory aneurysm and ischemic stroke due to cysticercal arteritis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 115: 25402542. [Google Scholar]
  125. Barinagarrementeria F, Cantu C, , 1998. Frequency of cerebral arteritis in subarachnoid cysticercosis: an angiographic study. Stroke 29: 123125. [Google Scholar]
  126. Del Brutto OH, , 1992. Cysticercosis and cerebrovascular disease: a review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55: 252254. [Google Scholar]
  127. Levy AS, Lillehei KO, Rubinstein D, Stears JC, , 1995. Subarachnoid neurocysticercosis with occlusion of the major intracranial arteries: case report. Neurosurgery 36: 183188, discussion 8. [Google Scholar]
  128. Viola GM, White AC, Jr Serpa JA, , 2011. Hemorrhagic cerebrovascular events and neurocysticercosis: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 402405. [Google Scholar]
  129. Forlenza OV, Filho AH, Nobrega JP, dos Ramos Machado L, de Barros NG, de Camargo CH, da Silva MF, , 1997. Psychiatric manifestations of neurocysticercosis: a study of 38 patients from a neurology clinic in Brazil. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 62: 612616. [Google Scholar]
  130. Keane JR, , 1995. Tremor as the result of shunt obstruction: four patients with cysticercosis and secondary parkinsonism: report of four cases. Neurosurgery 37: 520522. [Google Scholar]
  131. Sharma S, Modi M, Lal V, Prabhakar S, Bhardwaj A, Sehgal R, , 2013. Reversible dementia as a presenting manifestation of racemose neurocysticercosis. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 16: 8890. [Google Scholar]
  132. Wiwanitkit S, Wiwanitkit V, , 2013. Racemose neurocysticercosis and reversible dementia. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 16: 730. [Google Scholar]
  133. Chang GY, Keane JR, , 2001. Visual loss in cysticercosis: analysis of 23 patients. Neurology 57: 545548. [Google Scholar]
  134. Ranjith MP, Divya R, Sahni A, , 2011. Isolated third cranial nerve palsy: a rare presentation of neurocysticercosis. Ir J Med Sci 180: 905907. [Google Scholar]
  135. Kim JS, Jeong SM, Moon SY, Park SH, , 2004. Third cranial nerve palsy from midbrain neurocysticercosis: repeated exacerbation on tapering corticosteroids. J Neuroophthalmol 24: 217220. [Google Scholar]
  136. Sotelo J, Marin C, , 1987. Hydrocephalus secondary to cysticercotic arachnoiditis. A long-term follow-up review of 92 cases. J Neurosurg 66: 686689. [Google Scholar]
  137. Del Brutto OH, , 1997. Albendazole therapy for subarachnoid cysticerci: clinical and neuroimaging analysis of 17 patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 62: 659661. [Google Scholar]
  138. Marquez-Caraveo C, Gongora-Rivera F, Santos Zambrano J, Hernandez R, Soto-Hernandez JL, , 2004. Pre-treatment with corticosteroids and a single cycle of high dose albendazole for subarachnoidal cysticercosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75: 938939. [Google Scholar]
  139. Bang OY, Heo JH, Choi SA, Kim DI, , 1997. Large cerebral infarction during praziquantel therapy in neurocysticercosis. Stroke 28: 211213. [Google Scholar]
  140. Bobes RJ, Hernández M, Márquez C, Fragoso G, García E, Parkhouse RM, Harrison LJ, Sciutto E, Fleury A, , 2006. Subarachnoidal and intraventricular human neurocysticercosis: application of an antigen detection assay for the diagnosis and follow-up. Trop Med Int Health 11: 943950. [Google Scholar]
  141. Garcia HH, Harrison LJ, Parkhouse RM, Montenegro T, Martinez SM, Tsang VC, Gilman RH, , 1998. A specific antigen-detection ELISA for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis. The cysticercosis working group in Peru. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92: 411414. [Google Scholar]
  142. Garcia HH, Parkhouse RM, Gilman RH, Montenegro T, Bernal T, Martinez SM, Gonzalez AE, Tsang VC, Harrison LJ, Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru; , 2000. Serum antigen detection in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of neurocysticercosis patients. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94: 673676. [Google Scholar]
  143. Jimenez-Vazquez OH, Nagore N, , 2008. Cisternal neurocysticercosis. Br J Neurosurg 22: 774775. [Google Scholar]
  144. Del Brutto OH, Garcia HH, , 2013. Intramedullary cysticercosis of the spinal cord: a review of patients evaluated with MRI. J Neurol Sci 331: 114117. [Google Scholar]
  145. Sharma T, 2003. Intraocular cysticercosis: clinical characteristics and visual outcome after vitreoretinal surgery. Ophthalmology 110: 9961004. [Google Scholar]
  146. Wender JD, Rathinam SR, Shaw RE, Cunningham ET, Jr, 2011. Intraocular cysticercosis: case series and comprehensive review of the literature. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 19: 240245. [Google Scholar]
  147. Lim WK, Chee SP, , 2004. Nonsurgical management of subretinal cysticercosis. Retina 24: 469471. [Google Scholar]
  148. Kaliaperumal S, Rao VA, Parija SC, , 2005. Cysticercosis of the eye in south India—a case series. Indian J Med Microbiol 23: 227230. [Google Scholar]
  149. Singhi P, Singhi S, , 2009. Neurocysticercosis in children. Indian J Pediatr 76: 537545. [Google Scholar]
  150. Olveda RM, 2016. Efficacy and safety of praziquantel for the treatment of human schistosomiasis during pregnancy: a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis 16: 199208. [Google Scholar]
  151. Delatour P, Parish RC, Gyurik RJ, , 1981. Albendazole: a comparison of relay embryotoxicity with embryotoxicity of individual metabolites. Ann Rech Vet 12: 159167. [Google Scholar]
  152. Salam RA, Haider BA, Humayun Q, Bhutta ZA, , 2015. Effect of administration of antihelminthics for soil-transmitted helminths during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD005547. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Figure and Table

  • Received : 04 Dec 2017
  • Accepted : 19 Dec 2017
  • Published online : 04 Apr 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error