Volume 101, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We report a case of acute rheumatic fever with severe pancarditis occurring simultaneously with probable acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis in a previously well, Australian Aboriginal, 29-year-old male. These autoimmune streptococcal sequelae are usually considered pathogenetically distinct, and concurrence has not previously been reported from this high-burden setting. We hypothesize that a single type of infecting group A (Strep A) triggered both autoimmune sequelae. Salient features included mitral and aortic regurgitation that worsened during the acute illness, painful pericarditis, and high troponin; severe acute kidney injury with oliguria, hematuria, and macroalbuminuria; reduced complement (C3); and elevated streptococcal serology. The case highlights important diagnostic and management challenges. It also illustrates the serious morbidity impact of the complications of Strep A.


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  • Received : 29 Nov 2018
  • Accepted : 29 Jul 2019
  • Published online : 16 Sep 2019

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