Volume 100, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



During the building of the Thai–Burma railway in 1943 Australian and British prisoners of war died at high rates from tropical infections and nutritional deficiencies. Mortality records from “F” Force ( = 7,000) showed nearly half (44%) of the soldiers perished in a single year, yet only 4% of these deaths were primarily attributed to malaria, with another 7% where malaria was listed as a major contributing cause. Case fatality rates were < 1%, with nearly all soldiers chronically infected with > . Separate labor camp point prevalence malaria rates by microscopy ranged from 28% to 69% (median 54%) despite intermittent quinine suppression. During complex public health emergencies, malaria mortality may be disguised by its combination with other common infections and nutritional deficiencies.


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  • Received : 05 Nov 2018
  • Accepted : 16 Dec 2018
  • Published online : 21 Jan 2019

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