1921
Volume 101, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Alphaviruses (Togaviridae, ) are arthropod-borne single-stranded RNA pathogens that cause febrile and neurologic disease in much of Latin America. However, many features of Alphavirus epidemiology remain unknown. In 2011, we undertook a cross-sectional study in Nueva Esperanza, an indigenous community in the Peruvian Amazon. Here, we present the first serologic evidence of Mayaro (MAYV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphavirus, Una (UNAV), and Madariaga (MADV) viruses reported in humans (24%, 16%, 13%, and 1.5%, respectively) from an Amazonian indigenous community in Peru. Hunting activity and cohabiting with hunters were the main risk factors for Mayaro seroconversion, but only hunting was associated with UNAV seropositivity. Our results suggest that alphavirus infection in this region is common, but we highlight the high UNAV seroprevalence found and corroborate the low MADV prevalence reported in this region. Furthermore, MAYV-neutralizing antibodies were also detected in stored samples from wild animals (18%) hunted by Nueva Esperanza inhabitants and another mestizo community located close to Iquitos. Further serological surveys of VEE complex alphaviruses, UNAV, and MADV in wild animals and assessing the ability of the MAYV seropositive species to transmit the virus will be relevant.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0850
2019-09-30
2020-10-01
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/101/6/tpmd180850.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0850&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Halsey ES, Siles C, Guevara C, Vilcarromero S, Jhonston EJ, Ramal C, Aguilar PV, Ampuero JS, 2013. Mayaro virus infection, Amazon basin region, Peru, 2010–2013. Emerg Infect Dis 19: 18391842.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Forshey BM et al., 2010. Arboviral etiologies of acute febrile illnesses in western South America, 2000–2007. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e787.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Neumayr A, Gabriel M, Fritz J, Gunther S, Hatz C, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Blum J, 2012. Mayaro virus infection in traveler returning from Amazon basin, northern Peru. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 695696.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Morrison AC et al., 2008. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in Iquitos, Peru: urban transmission of a sylvatic strain. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e349.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Vilcarromero S et al., 2010. Venezuelan equine encephalitis and 2 human deaths, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 553556.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Aguilar PV et al., 2007. Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 293298.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Luciani K, Abadía I, Martínez-Torres AO, Cisneros J, Guerra I, García M, Estripeaut D, Carrera JP, 2015. Case report: Madariaga virus infection associated with a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92: 11301132.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Carrera JP et al., 2013. Eastern equine encephalitis in Latin America. N Engl J Med 369: 732744.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Lednicky JA, White SK, Mavian CN, El Badry MA, Telisma T, Salemi M, Okech BA, Beau De Rochars VM, Morris JG Jr., 2019. Emergence of Madariaga virus as a cause of acute febrile illness in children, Haiti, 2015–2016. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13: e0006972.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Blohm GM, Lednicky JA, White SK, Mavian CN, Márquez MC, González-García KP, Salemi M, Morris JG Jr., Paniz-Mondolfi AE, 2018. Madariaga virus: identification of a lineage III strain in a Venezuelan child with acute undifferentiated febrile illness, in the setting of a possible equine epizootic. Clin Infect Dis 67: 619621.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Turell MJ et al., 2005. Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon basin region of Peru. J Med Entomol 42: 891898.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Diaz LA, Spinsanti LI, Almiron WR, Contigiani MS, 2003. UNA virus: first report of human infection in Argentina. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 45: 109110.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Palma-Pinedo H, Reyes-Vega MF, 2018. Barriers identified by the health staff for the screening of human immunodeficiency virus in indigenous populations of the peruvian amazon [article in Spanish]. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 35: 610619.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Izurieta RO, Macaluso M, Watts DM, Tesh RB, Guerra B, Cruz LM, Galwankar S, Vermund SH, 2011. Hunting in the rainforest and Mayaro virus infection: an emerging Alphavirus in Ecuador. J Glob Infect Dis 3: 317323.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Johnson BW, Kosoy O, Wang E, Delorey M, Russell B, Bowen RA, Weaver SC, 2011. Use of sindbis/eastern equine encephalitis chimeric viruses in plaque reduction neutralization tests for arboviral disease diagnostics. Clin Vaccine Immunol 18: 14861491.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Vittor AY et al., 2016. Epidemiology of emergent Madariaga encephalitis in a region with endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis: initial host studies and human cross-sectional study in Darien, Panama. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004554.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lennette EH, Lennette DA, Lennette ET, 1995. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial, and Chlamydial Infections. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Therneau T, Atkinson B, 2018. Rpart: Recursive Partitioning and Regression Trees. Available at: https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=rpart. R Package Version 4. 1–13.
  19. R Core team, 2019. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Aguilar PV, Estrada-Franco JG, Navarro-Lopez R, Ferro C, Haddow AD, Weaver SC, 2011. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in the Americas: hidden under the dengue umbrella. Future Virol 6: 721740.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Arrigo NC, Adams AP, Weaver SC, 2010. Evolutionary patterns of eastern equine encephalitis virus in north versus south America suggest ecological differences and taxonomic revision. J Virol 84: 10141025.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Quiroz E, Aguilar PV, Cisneros J, Tesh RB, Weaver SC, 2009. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e472.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hoch AL, Peterson NE, LeDuc JW, Pinheiro FP, 1981. An outbreak of Mayaro virus disease in Belterra, Brazil. III. entomological and ecological studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 30: 689698.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Auguste AJ et al., 2015. Evolutionary and ecological characterization of Mayaro virus strains isolated during an outbreak, Venezuela, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 17421750.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Schaeffer M, Gajdusek DC, Lema AB, Eichenwald H, 1959. Epidemic jungle fevers among Okinawan colonists in the Bolivian rain forest I. Epidemiology. Am J Trop Med Hyg 8: 372396.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. LeDuc JW, Pinheiro FP, Travassos da Rosa AP, 1981. An outbreak of Mayaro virus disease in Belterra, Brazil. II. Epidemiology. Am J Trop Med Hyg 30: 682688.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Black FL et al., 1974. Evidence for persistence of infectious agents in isolated human populations. Am J Epidemiol 100: 230250.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Talarmin A et al., 1998. Mayaro virus fever in French Guiana: isolation, identification, and seroprevalence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 452456.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hotez PJ, Murray KO, 2017. Dengue, West Nile virus, Chikungunya, Zika-and now Mayaro? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11: e0005462.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Calisher CH, Gutierrez E, Maness KS, Lord RD, 1974. Isolation of Mayaro virus from a migrating bird captured in Louisiana in 1967. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 8: 243248.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. de Thoisy B, Gardon J, Salas RA, Morvan J, Kazanji M, 2003. Mayaro virus in wild mammals, French Guiana. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 13261329.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Batista PM, Andreotti R, Chiang JO, Ferreira MS, Vasconcelos PF, 2012. Seroepidemiological monitoring in sentinel animals and vectors as part of arbovirus surveillance in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 45: 168173.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Travassos da Rosa JFS, Travassos da Rosa APA, Vasconcelos PFC, Pinheiro FP, Rodrigues SG, Travassos da Rosa ES, Dias L, Cruz A, 1988. Arboviruses isolated in the Evandro Chagas Institute, including some described for the first time in the Brazilian Amazon region, their known host, and their pathology for man. Travassos da Rosa APA, Vasconcelos PFC, Travassos da Rosa JFS, eds. An Overview of Arbovirology in Brazil and Neighbouring Countries. Belem, Brazil: Instituto Evandro Chagas, 1931.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ramírez JE, Yanoviak SP, Lounibos LP, Weaver SC, 2007. Distribución vertical de Haemagogus janthinomys (dyar) (Diptera: Culicidae) en bosques de la AmazonÌa Peruana. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud publica 24: 4045.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Long KC, Ziegler SA, Thangamani S, Hausser NL, Kochel TJ, Higgs S, Tesh RB, 2011. Experimental transmission of Mayaro virus by Aedes aegypti. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85: 750757.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Turell MJ, Sardelis MR, Jones JW, Watts DM, Fernandez R, Carbajal F, Pecor JE, Klein TA, 2008. Seasonal distribution, biology, and human attraction patterns of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rural village and adjacent forested site near Iquitos, Peru. J Med Entomol 45: 11651172.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Brustolin M, Pujhari S, Henderson CA, Rasgon JL, 2018. Anopheles mosquitoes may drive invasion and transmission of Mayaro virus across geographically diverse regions. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12: e0006895.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Cardozo F et al., 2018. Alphaviruses: serological evidence of human infection in Paraguay (2012–2013). Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis 18:5, 266272.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Martins KA et al., 2019. Neutralizing antibodies from convalescent Chikungunya virus patients can cross-neutralize Mayaro and Una viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 100: 15411544.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0850
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0850
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental table

  • Received : 23 Oct 2018
  • Accepted : 15 Aug 2019
  • Published online : 30 Sep 2019
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error