Volume 100, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Forty-five egg–negative/circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) low (Trace-1+) positive children in areas of very low prevalence were followed up daily for 30 days. Stool and urine specimens were collected and examined each day from each child. At the midpoint of the study, three egg-positive control persons with light intensity infection were included in the protocol. Stool samples were examined by the Kato–Katz (four slides/stool sample) technique and all egg–negative stools were further tested by the “miracidia hatching test” (MHT). Urine samples were examined by the point-of-care CCA assay (POC-CCA). Over 30 days, only one of 1,338 consecutive stool samples from study subjects was egg and MHT positive (0.07%). Egg counts fluctuated daily in stools from positive controls and miracidia were detected in all but two samples by the MHT. Point-of-care–circulating cathodic antigen bands were scored from G1 to G10 and then translated to standard Trace, 1+, 2+, 3+ banding patterns. In two districts, the POC-CCA assays were Trace or 1+ for both the study children and the positive controls. In the third district, the POC-CCA assays were Trace or 1+ for the study children and 1+ or 2+ for the positive control. We conclude that in areas with extremely low prevalence egg–negative and CCA-Trace or 1+ children are unlikely to pose substantial risks to continued transmission of schistosomiasis. In this setting, POC-CCA Trace or 1+ readings are likely to be false positives or perhaps represent low-level single-sex schistosome infections.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 16 Oct 2018
  • Accepted : 06 Nov 2018
  • Published online : 02 Jan 2019

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