Volume 101, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Endemic transmission of measles has been reestablished in Venezuela, and outbreaks of diphtheria remain ongoing across Latin America (LA). Hence, a large cross-sectional population-based serosurveillance study was conducted on Bonaire, one of the Dutch Leeward Antilles, to assess specific age and population groups at risk. Participants (aged 0–90 years) donated a blood sample and completed a questionnaire ( = 1,129). Antibodies against measles and diphtheria were tested using bead-based multiplex immunoassays. Our data revealed that immunity against measles is suboptimal, especially for those aged less than 5 years from Suriname, Aruba, and former Dutch Antilles (SADA), and adolescents from LA; and against diphtheria for persons aged more than 30 years, particularly among females and residents from SADA and LA. As refugees arrive persistently, health authorities on the Dutch Leeward Antilles should be on alert to detect early cases and prevent subsequent transmission. Ultimately, there is an urgent need for serosurveillance studies in the Caribbean region.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 15 Oct 2018
  • Accepted : 15 Apr 2019
  • Published online : 20 May 2019

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