Volume 100, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The largest epidemic of Lassa fever in recent history occurred in Nigeria in 2018. We assessed the potential for cases of Lassa fever originating in Nigeria to arrive at international destinations via air travel using a probabilistic model. We estimated no exported cases in 62% of 1,000 model simulations. In 30% of simulations, a single exported case was projected. Greater than 40% of outbound travelers from Nigeria arrived in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Ghana, placing these countries at greatest risk for receiving an exported case. There was a wide range in the capacity of highly connected countries to respond to infectious disease threats, as measured by the Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index. Although we quantified a low probability of case exportation during this outbreak, countries with the greatest connectivity to Nigeria should be alert to the potential risks of Lassa fever importation and be prepared to manage infected individuals.


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Supplemental appendix and figure

  • Received : 14 Sep 2018
  • Accepted : 26 Nov 2018
  • Published online : 28 Jan 2019

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