Volume 101, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Capacity building is needed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Stewardship programs such as post-prescription review and feedback (PPRF) are important components in addressing AMR. Little data are available regarding effectiveness of PPRF programs in LMIC settings. An adapted PPRF program was implemented in the medicine, surgery, and obstetrics/gynecology wards in a 125-bed hospital in Kathmandu. Seven “physician champions” were trained. Baseline and post-intervention patient chart data were analyzed for changes in days of therapy (DOT) and mean number of course days for intravenous and oral antibiotics, and for specific study antibiotics. Charts were independently reviewed to determine justification for prescribed antibiotics. Physician champions documented recommendations. Days of therapy per 1,000 patient-days for courses of aminoglycoside ( < 0.001) and cephalosporin ( < 0.001) decreased. In the medicine ward, data indicate increased justified use of antibiotics ( = 0.02), de-escalation ( < 0.001), rational use of antibiotics ( < 0.01), and conforming to guidelines in the first 72 hours ( = 0.02), and for definitive therapy ( < 0.001). Physician champions documented 437 patient chart reviews and made 138 recommendations; 78.3% of recommendations were followed by the attending physician. Post-prescription review and feedback can be successfully implemented in LMIC hospitals, which often lack infectious disease specialists. Future program adaptation and training will focus on identifying additional stewardship programming and support mechanisms to optimize antibiotic use in LMICs.


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  • Received : 05 Sep 2018
  • Accepted : 21 Jun 2019
  • Published online : 05 Aug 2019

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