1921
Volume 100, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

This study discusses a historical patient series and is designed to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of human sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Data were derived from patients treated at the Infectious Diseases service of Cassiano Antônio Moraes University Hospital in Vitória, the state capital, from July 1982 to June 2012. A total of 171 patients were diagnosed with sporotrichosis, mostly men (80.7%) with a median age of 33 years and 5 months. We can presume an approximate average incidence rate of 4.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants during the studied period. All the patients were involved in occupational or leisure activities with direct contact with soil or plants. Most cases were recorded in the mountainous region of the state during the hot and rainy periods. The average time elapsed from lesion progression to diagnosis was 3 months, with the lymphocutaneous form being the most common (70.2%), followed by the fixed cutaneous form (28.6%). Diagnosis was confirmed in 93.6% of the cases by culturing spp. in Sabouraud dextrose agar, and from the clinical features in the remaining cases. Aspiration of cutaneous nodule secretions was the best method for the collection of clinical specimens for disease diagnosis. A 25% saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI) was provided to almost all patients (98.8%), with therapeutic success. In conclusion, in this retrospective study in the state of Espírito Santo, we found that sporotrichosis affects primarily the ≥ 10-year-old population, and the most common presentation is the lymphocutaneous form affecting the lower and upper limbs, and the infection appeared to be acquired predominantly through occupational activities. Treatment with SSKI was safe and effective.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0667
2018-12-26
2020-01-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/100/3/tpmd180667.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0667&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Queiroz-Telles F, Nucci M, Colombo AL, Tobón A, Restrepo A, , 2011. Mycoses of implantation in Latin America: an overview of epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. Med Mycol 49: 225236. [Google Scholar]
  2. Marimon R, Cano J, Gené J, Sutton DA, Kawasaki M, Guarro J, , 2007. Sporothrix brasiliensis, S. globosa, and S. mexicana, three new Sporothrix species of clinical interest. J Clin Microbiol 45: 31983206. [Google Scholar]
  3. Marimon R, Gené J, Cano J, Guarro J, , 2008. Sporothrix lurei: a rare fungus from clinical origin. Med Mycol 46: 621625. [Google Scholar]
  4. Zhang Y, 2015. Phylogeography and evolutionary patterns in Sporothrix spanning more than 14 000 human and animal case reports. Persoonia 35: 120. [Google Scholar]
  5. Rodrigues AM, Cruz Choappa R, Fernandes GF, de Hoog GS, de Camargo ZP, , 2016. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals. Fungal Biol 120: 246264. [Google Scholar]
  6. Orofino-Costa R, de Macedo PM, Rodrigues AM, Bernardes-Engemann AR, , 2017. Sporotrichosis: an update on epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, laboratory and clinical therapeutics. An Bras Dermatol 92: 606620. [Google Scholar]
  7. Lederer HT, Sullivan E, Crum-Cianflone NF, , 2016. Sporotrichosis as na unusual case of osteomyelitis: a case report and review of the literature. Med Mycol Case Rep 11: 3135. [Google Scholar]
  8. Ramírez Soto MC, , 2018. Differences in clinical ocular outcomes between exogenous and endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Sporothrix: a systematic review of published literature. Br J Ophthalmol 102: 977982. [Google Scholar]
  9. Barros MB, de Almeida Paes R, Schubach AO, , 2011. Sporothrix schenckii and sporotrichosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 24: 633654. [Google Scholar]
  10. Benvegnú AM, Stramari J, Dallazem LND, Chemello RML, Beber AAC, , 2017. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in patient with alcoholism. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 50: 871873. [Google Scholar]
  11. Chakrabarti A, Bonifaz A, Gutierrez-Galhardo MC, Mochizuki T, Li S, , 2015. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis. Med Mycol 53: 314. [Google Scholar]
  12. Bustamante B, Campos PE, , 2001. Endemic sporotrichosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 14: 145149. [Google Scholar]
  13. Lutz A, Splendore A, , 1907. Sobre uma micose observada em homens e ratos. Rev Med Trop Sao Paulo 21: 433450. [Google Scholar]
  14. Barros MB, Schubach Ade O, do Valle AC, Gutierrez-Galhardo MC, Conceição-Silva F, Schubach TM, Reis RS, Wanke B, Marzochi KB, Conceição MJ, , 2004. Cat-transmitted sporotrichosis epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: description of a series of cases. Clin Infect Dis 38: 529535. [Google Scholar]
  15. Montenegro H, Rodrigues AM, Dias MA, da Silva EA, Bernardi F, de Camargo ZP, , 2014. Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis: an emerging animal infection in São Paulo, Brazil. BMC Vet Res 10: 269. [Google Scholar]
  16. Sanchotene KO, Madrid IM, Klafke GB, Bergamashi M, Della Terra PP, Rodrigues AM, de Camargo ZP, Xavier MO, , 2015. Sporothrix brasiliensis outbreaks and the rapid emergence of feline sporotrichosis. Mycoses 58: 652658. [Google Scholar]
  17. da Rosa AC, Scroferneker ML, Vettorato R, Gervini RL, Vettorato G, Weber A, , 2005. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis: a study of 304 cases in Brazil. J Am Acad Dermatol 52: 451459. [Google Scholar]
  18. Barros MBL, Schubach AO, Schubach TMP, Wanke B, Lambert-Passos SR, , 2008. An Epidemic of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: epidemiological aspects of a series of cases. Epidemiol Infect 136: 11921196. [Google Scholar]
  19. Marques GF, Martins AL, Sousa JM, Brandão LS, Wachholz PA, Masuda PY, , 2015. Characterization of sporotrichosis cases treated in a dermatologic teaching unit in the state of São Paulo-Brazil, 2003–2013. An Bras Dermatol 90: 273275. [Google Scholar]
  20. Falqueto A, Bravim Maifrede S, Araujo Ribeiro M, , 2012. Unusual clinical presentation of sporotrichosis in three members of one family. Int J Dermatol 51: 434438. [Google Scholar]
  21. Oliveira MM, Maifrede SB, Ribeiro MA, Zancope-Oliveira RM, , 2013. Molecular indentification of Sporothrix species involved in the first familial outbreak of sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 108: 936938. [Google Scholar]
  22. de Araujo ML, Rodrigues AM, Fernandes GF, de Camargo ZP, de Hoog GS, , 2015. Human sporotrichosis beyond the epidemic front reveals classical transmission types in Espírito Santo, Brazil. Mycoses 58: 485490. [Google Scholar]
  23. Madeiros KB, Landeiro LG, Diniz LM, Falqueto A, , 2016. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis associated with ocular lesion in an immunocompetent patient. Bras Dermatol 91: 537539. [Google Scholar]
  24. Feitoza LR, Stocking M, Resende M, , 2001. Natural Resources Information Systems for Rural Development: Approaches for Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Vitoria, Brazil: Incaper, 1223. [Google Scholar]
  25. Macotela-Ruiz E, Nochebuena-Ramos E, , 2006. Esporotricosis en algunas comunidades rurales de la Sierra Norte de Puebla. Informe de 55 casos (Septiembre 1995–Diciembre 2005). Gac Méd Méx 142: 377380. [Google Scholar]
  26. Rubio G, Sánchez G, Porras L, Alvarado Z, , 2010. Esporotricosis: prevalência, perfil clínico y epidemiológico en un centro de referencia en Colombia. Rev Iberoam Micol 27: 7579. [Google Scholar]
  27. Mata-Essayag S, Delgado A, Colella MT, Landaeta-Nezer ME, Rosello A, Perez de Salazar C, Olaizola C, Hartung C, Magaldi S, Velasquez E, , 2013. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis in Venezuela. Int J Dermatol 52: 974980. [Google Scholar]
  28. Oyarce JA, García C, Alave J, Bustamante B, , 2016. Caracterización epidemiológica, clínica y de laboratório de esporotricosis en pacientes de un hospital de tercer nível en Lima-Perú, entre los años 1991 y 2014. Rev Chilena Infectol 33: 315321. [Google Scholar]
  29. Ramírez Soto MC, , 2015. Sporotrichosis: the story of an endemic region in Peru over 28 years (1985 to 2012). PLos One 10: e0127924. [Google Scholar]
  30. Pappas PG, Tellez I, Deep AE, Nolasco D, Holgado W, Bustamante B, , 2000. Sporotrichosis in Peru: description of an area of hyperendemicity. Clin Infect Dis 30: 6570. [Google Scholar]
  31. Lyon GM, Zurita S, Casquero J, Holgado W, Guevara J, Brandt ME, Douglas S, Shutt K, Warnock DW, Hajjeh RA, Sporotrichosis in Peru Investigation Team; , 2003. Population-based surveillance and a case-control study of risk factors for endemic lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis in Peru. Clin Infect Dis 36: 3439. [Google Scholar]
  32. Silvagnanam S, Bannan AM, Chen SC, Ralph AP, , 2012. Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii infection) in the New South Wales mid-north coast, 2000–2010. Med J Aust 196: 588590. [Google Scholar]
  33. Verma S, Verma GK, Singh G, Kanga A, Shanker V, Singh D, Gupta P, Mokta K, Sharma V, , 2012. Sporotrichosis in sub-Himalayan India. PLos Negl Trop Dis 6: e1673. [Google Scholar]
  34. Song Y, Li SS, Zhong SX, Liu YY, Yao L, Huo SS, , 2013. Report of 457 sporotrichosis cases from Jilin province, northeast China, a serious endemic region. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 27: 313318. [Google Scholar]
  35. Mahajan VK, , 2014. Sporotrichosis: an overview and therapeutic options. Dermatol Res Pract 2014: 272376. [Google Scholar]
  36. Cabezas C, Bustamante B, Holgado W, Begue RE, , 1996. Treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis with one daily dose of potassium iodide. Pediatr Infect Dis J 15: 352354. [Google Scholar]
  37. Macedo PM, Lopes-Bezerra LM, Bernardes-Engemann AR, Orofino-Costa R, , 2015. New posology of potassium iodide for the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis: study of efficacy and safety in 102 patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 29: 719724. [Google Scholar]
  38. de Lima Barros MB, Schubach AO, de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira R, Martins EB, Teixeira JL, Wanke B, , 2011. Treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis with itraconazole—study of 645 patients. Clin Infect Dis 52: e200e206. [Google Scholar]
  39. Kauffman CA, Bustamante B, Chapman SW, Pappas PG, Infectious Diseases Society of America; , 2007. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of sporotrichosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 45: 12551265. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0667
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0667
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 14 Aug 2018
  • Accepted : 14 Nov 2018
  • Published online : 26 Dec 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error