Volume 102, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Nomads and labor migrants constitute a vulnerable group beset with high healthcare costs due to lack of health insurance coverage. Their inability to pay for health care constitutes a threat to their well-being and health risk to the host community as they have higher morbidity from diseases and serve as a reservoir of infective agents. This study investigated how nomads and labor migrants pay and cope with necessary healthcare costs. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 323 migrants in four local government areas of Oyo State, which were selected purposively. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire that sought information on respondents’ sociodemographics, healthcare payment methods and coping strategies were employed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test to test the association between categorical variables at ≤ 0.05. The mean age of the respondents was 34.4 ± 1.4 years and 53.2% were farmers. Of the 200 respondents who had used the formal healthcare system, 13 (6.5%) obtained free services via the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) and 187 (93.2%) paid out of pocket for service. Coping with health bills, 115 (62.2%) paid from savings, 34 (18.4%) borrowed money, and 58 (31.4%) sold property. Those with formal education were more likely to pay through NHIS (χ2 = 9.7, = 0.002). Nomads/migrants in this study have demonstrated the inability to cope with payment of health bills, suggesting the need to look into the policy on healthcare funding/support to migrants and educationally disadvantaged persons. The creation of prepaid pooled payment systems such as social and community health insurance schemes is suggested.


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  • Received : 26 Jul 2018
  • Accepted : 31 Jan 2020
  • Published online : 30 Mar 2020
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