Volume 100, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Mechanisms implicated in the association between neurocysticercosis (NCC) and cognitive impairment remain unknown. Atahualpa residents aged ≥ 40 years with calcified NCC were identified as case patients and paired 1:1 to age- and gender-matched controls. The selection process generated 79 pairs. Cognitive performance was measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). A conditional logistic regression model revealed no differences in MoCA scores across case patients and controls, after adjusting for education, epilepsy, depression, and hippocampal atrophy. The single covariate remaining significant was hippocampal atrophy. When participants were stratified according to this covariate, linear models showed lower MoCA scores among case patients (but not controls) with hippocampal atrophy. In a fully adjusted linear regression model, age remained as the single covariate explaining cognitive impairment among NCC patients. This study demonstrates an association between hippocampal atrophy and poor cognitive performance among patients with calcified NCC, most likely attributable to the effect of age.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Forlenza CV, Filho AH, Nobrega JP, dos Ramos Machado L, de Barros NG, Camargo CH, da Silva MF, , 1997. Psychiatric manifestations of neurocysticercosis: a study of 38 patients from a neurology clinic in Brazil. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 62: 612616. [Google Scholar]
  2. Levav M, Mirsky AF, Cruz ME, Cruz I, , 1995. Neurocysticercosis and performance on neuropsychologic tests: a family study in Ecuador. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53: 552557. [Google Scholar]
  3. Boppré MC, 2001. Cognitive performance of patients with epilepsy and calcified neurocysticercotic lesions: a case-control study. Epilepsy Behav 2: 558562. [Google Scholar]
  4. Campi de Andrade D, Rodrigues CL, Abraham R, Castro LH, Livramento JA, Machado LR, Leite CC, Caramelli P, , 2010. Cognitive impairment and dementia in neurocysticercosis: a cross-sectional controlled study. Neurology 74: 12881295. [Google Scholar]
  5. Wallin MT, Pretell EJ, Bustos JA, Caballero M, Alfaro M, Kane R, Wilken J, Sullivan C, Fratto T, Garcia HH, , 2012. Cognitive changes and quality of life in neurocysticercosis: a longitudinal study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1493. [Google Scholar]
  6. Rodrigues CL, de Andrade DC, Livramento JA, Machado LR, Abraham R, Massaroppe L, Lucato LT, Caramelli P, , 2012. Spectrum of cognitive impairment in neurocysticercosis: differences according to disease phase. Neurology 78: 861866. [Google Scholar]
  7. Srivastava S, Chadda RK, Bala K, Majumdar P, , 2013. A study of neuropsychiatric manifestations in patients of neurocysticercosis. Indian J Psychiatry 55: 264267. [Google Scholar]
  8. Ramirez-Bermudez J, Higuera-Calleja J, Espinola-Nadurille M, Corona T, , 2017. Neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with neurocysticercosis. Asia Pac Psychiatry 9: e12250. [Google Scholar]
  9. Nau AL, 2018. Cognitive impairment and quality of life of people with epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in Zambia. Epilepsy Behav 80: 354359. [Google Scholar]
  10. Terra-Bustamante VC, 2005. Cognitive performance of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and incidental calcified neurocysticercosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76: 10801083. [Google Scholar]
  11. Del Brutto OH, Engel J, Jr. Eliashiv DS, Garcia HH, , 2016. Update on cysticercosis epileptogenesis: the role of the hippocampus. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 16: 1. [Google Scholar]
  12. Del Brutto OH, Issa NP, Salgado P, Del Brutto VJ, Zambrano M, Lama J, Garcia HH, , 2017. The association between neurocysticercosis and hippocampal atrophy is related to age. Am J Trop Med Hyg 96: 234238. [Google Scholar]
  13. Del Brutto OH, Arroyo G, Del Brutto VJ, Zambrano M, Garcia HH, , 2017. On the relationship between calcified neurocysticercosis and epilepsy in an endemic village: a large-scale, computed tomography-based population study in rural Ecuador. Epilepsia 58: 19551961. [Google Scholar]
  14. Del Brutto OH, O’Neal SE, Dorny P, Garcia HH, , 2018. Spontaneously arrested transmission of cysticercosis in a highly endemic village with a very low migration rate. Am J Trop Med Hyg 98: 776778. [Google Scholar]
  15. Del Brutto OH, Salgado P, Lama J, Del Brutto VJ, Campos X, Zambrano M, Garcia HH, , 2015. Calcified neurocysticercosis associates with hippocampal atrophy: a population-based study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91: 6468. [Google Scholar]
  16. Del Brutto OH, Nash TE, White AC, Jr. Rajshekhar V, Wilkins PP, Singh G, Vasquez CM, Salgado P, Gilman RH, Garcia HH, , 2017. Revised diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis. J Neurol Sci 372: 202210. [Google Scholar]
  17. Scheltens PH, Leys D, Barkhof F, Huglo D, Weinstein HC, Vermersch P, Kuiper M, Steinling M, Wolters EC, Walk J, , 1992. Atrophy of medial temporal lobes on MRI in “probable” Alzheimer’s disease and normal ageing: diagnostic value and neuropsychological correlates. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55: 967972. [Google Scholar]
  18. Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bédirian V, Charbonneau S, Whitehead V, Collin I, Cummings JL, Chertkow H, , 2005. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc 53: 695699. [Google Scholar]
  19. Del Brutto OH, Mera RM, Del Brutto VJ, Sedler MJ, , 2016. The bicaudate index inversely associates with performance in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in older adults living in rural Ecuador. The Atahualpa project. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 31: 944950. [Google Scholar]
  20. Boutet C, Chupin M, Colliot O, Sarazin M, Mutlu G, Drier A, Pellot A, Dormont D, Lehércy S, Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative; , 2012. Is radiological evaluation as good as computer-based volumetry to assess hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease? Neuroradiology 54: 13211330. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 24 Jul 2018
  • Accepted : 31 Oct 2018
  • Published online : 10 Dec 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error