1921
Volume 100, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is endemic in numerous countries, but the epidemiology and epizoology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) remain to be defined for most regions of the world. Using a broad database search approach, we reviewed the literature on CCHF and CCHFV in Southern and Western Asia to better define the disease burden in these areas. We used a One Health approach, moving beyond a focus solely on human disease burden to more comprehensively define this burden by reviewing CCHF case reports, human and animal CCHFV seroprevalence studies, and human and animal CCHFV isolations. In addition, we used published literature to estimate the distribution of ticks and infection of these ticks by CCHFV. Using these data, we propose a new classification scheme for organizing the evaluated countries into five categories by level of evidence for CCHF endemicity. Twelve countries have reported CCHF cases, five from Southern Asia and seven from Western Asia. These were assigned to level 1 or 2. Eleven countries that have evidence of vector circulation but did not report confirmed CCHF cases were assigned to level 3 or 4. This classification scheme was developed to inform policy toward strengthening CCHF disease surveillance in the Southern and Western Asia regions. In particular, the goal of this review was to inform international organizations, local governments, and health-care professionals about current shortcomings in CCHFV surveillance in these two high-prevalence regions.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0553
2019-01-09
2020-01-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/100/1/tpmd180553.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0553&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. ESRI, 2017. ArcGIS: Release 10.6. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute.
  2. Čumakov MP, , 1945. Krymskaâ Gemorragičeskaâ Lihoradka (Ostryj Infekcionnyj Kapillârotoksikoz). Simferopol, USSR: Izdanie Otdel’noj Primorskoj Armii. [Google Scholar]
  3. Papa A, Weber F, Hewson R, Weidmann M, Koksal I, Korukluoglu G, Mirazimi A, , 2015. Meeting report: first international conference on Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Antiviral Res 120: 5765. [Google Scholar]
  4. World Health Organization, 2016. ICD-10 Version: 2016. Available at: http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2016/en. Accessed February 3, 2018.
  5. Maes P, 2018. Taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales: update 2018. Arch Virol 163: 22952310. [Google Scholar]
  6. Schwarz TF, Nsanze H, Ameen AM, , 1997. Clinical features of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the United Arab Emirates. Infection 25: 364367. [Google Scholar]
  7. Leblebicioglu H, Ozaras R, Irmak H, Sencan I, , 2016. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Turkey: current status and future challenges. Antiviral Res 126: 2134. [Google Scholar]
  8. Bente DA, Forrester NL, Watts DM, McAuley AJ, Whitehouse CA, Bray M, , 2013. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity. Antiviral Res 100: 159189. [Google Scholar]
  9. Gargili A, Estrada-Peña A, Spengler JR, Lukashev A, Nuttall PA, Bente DA, , 2017. The role of ticks in the maintenance and transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: a review of published field and laboratory studies. Antiviral Res 144: 93119. [Google Scholar]
  10. Telmadarraiy Z, Chinikar S, Vatandoost H, Faghihi F, Hosseini-Chegeni A, , 2015. Vectors of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis 9: 137147. [Google Scholar]
  11. Široký P, Bělohlávek T, Papoušek I, Jandzik D, Mikulíček P, Kubelová M, Zdražilová-Dubská L, , 2014. Hidden threat of tortoise ticks: high prevalence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in ticks Hyalomma aegyptium in the Middle East. Parasit Vectors 7: 101. [Google Scholar]
  12. Spengler JR, Estrada-Peña A, Garrison AR, Schmaljohn C, Spiropoulou CF, Bergeron E, Bente DA, , 2016. A chronological review of experimental infection studies of the role of wild animals and livestock in the maintenance and transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Antiviral Res 135: 3147. [Google Scholar]
  13. Mostafavi E, Pourhossein B, Esmaeili S, Bagheri Amiri F, Khakifirouz S, Shah-Hosseini N, Tabatabaei SM, , 2017. Seroepidemiology and risk factors of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever among butchers and slaughterhouse workers in southeastern Iran. Int J Infect Dis 64: 8589. [Google Scholar]
  14. Williams RJ, Al-Busaidy S, Mehta FR, Maupin GO, Wagoner KD, Al-Awaidy S, Suleiman AJM, Khan AS, Peters CJ, Ksiazek TG, , 2000. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: a seroepidemiological and tick survey in the sultanate of Oman. Trop Med Int Health 5: 99106. [Google Scholar]
  15. Saidi S, Casals J, Faghih MA, , 1975. Crimean hemorrhagic fever-Congo (CHF-C) virus antibodies in man, and in domestic and small mammals, in Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg 24: 353357. [Google Scholar]
  16. Sureau P, Klein J-M, , 1980. Arbovirus en Iran. Méd Trop (Mars) 40: 549554. [Google Scholar]
  17. Mardani M, , 2000. An outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the Islamic Republic of Iran. 1999. Clin Infect Dis 31: 315. [Google Scholar]
  18. Casals J, , 1978. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Pattyn SR, ed. Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever. Proceedings of an International Colloquium on Ebola Virus Infection and Other Haemorrhagic Fevers held in Antwerp, Belgium, 6–8 December, 1977. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, 301–318.
  19. Hoogstraal H, , 1979. The epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Asia, Europe, and Africa. J Med Entomol 15: 307417. [Google Scholar]
  20. Al-Abri SS, 2017. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization eastern Mediterranean region: issues, challenges, and future directions. Int J Infect Dis 58: 8289. [Google Scholar]
  21. Afghanistan National Public Health Institute, 2017. Disease Early Warning System Weekly Report. Available at: http://moph.gov.af/en/documents. Accessed February 3, 2018.
  22. Haider S, Hassali MA, Iqbal Q, Anwer M, Saleem F, , 2016. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Pakistan. Lancet Infect Dis 16: 1333. [Google Scholar]
  23. United Nations Statistics Division, 2018. Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use (M49). Available at: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/methodology/m49/. Accessed February 3, 2018.
  24. World Health Organization, 2017. One Health. Available at: http://www.who.int/features/qa/one-health/en/. Accessed February 3, 2018.
  25. World Health Organization, 2017. Geographic Distribution of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever. Available at: http://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever/Global_CCHFRisk_2017.jpg?ua=1. Accessed December 20, 2018.
  26. Zeller HG, Cornet J-P, Camicas J-L, , 1994. Experimental transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus by west African wild ground-feeding birds to Hyalomma marginatum rufipes ticks. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50: 676681. [Google Scholar]
  27. World Health Organization, 2017. Zika Virus Country Classification Scheme. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/254619/WHO-ZIKV-SUR-17.1-eng.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed December 20, 2018.
  28. Mardani M, Namazee N, , 2017. CCHF in Iran: An Eighteen Years Review. 2nd International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Thessaloniki, Greece, September 10–12, 2017.
  29. Jalali T, , 2015. Epidemiology, Phylogenetics, Biosafety and Molecular Detection of CCHF. Available at: http://www.isv.org.ir/attachments/article/87/Jalali.pdf. Accessed February 3, 2018.
  30. Baghi HB, Aghazadeh M, Oskouee MA, , 2017. CCHF in Iran and Future Challenges. 2nd International Congress on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. Thessaloniki, Greece, September 10–12, 2017. [Google Scholar]
  31. Cosgun Y, Menemenlioglu D, Caglayik DY, Bayrakdar F, Giray BG, Seda H, Ozmen E, Korhan A, Korukluoglu G, Papa A, , 2017. Evaluation of the CCHF Results Analyzed in Public Health Laboratories in Turkey Between 2014 and 2017. , ed. 2nd International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. Thessaloniki, Greece, September 10–12, 2017, 5354. [Google Scholar]
  32. World Health Organization, 2017. Health threats reported in 2017. Wkly Epidemiol Monit 10: 1. [Google Scholar]
  33. World Health Organization, 2017. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Afghanistan. Wkly Epidemiol Monit 10: 1. [Google Scholar]
  34. World Health Organization, 2016. An R&D Blueprint for Action to Prevent Epidemics. Available at: http://www.who.int/blueprint/about/r_d_blueprint_plan_of_action.pdf. Accessed February 3, 2018.
  35. Wagner AL, Mubarak MY, Johnson LE, Porth JM, Yousif JE, Boulton ML, , 2017. Trends of vaccine-preventable diseases in Afghanistan from the disease early warning system, 2009–2015. PLoS One 12: e0178677. [Google Scholar]
  36. Atif M, Saqib A, Ikram R, Sarwar MR, Scahill S, , 2017. The reasons why Pakistan might be at high risk of Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever epidemic; a scoping review of the literature. Virol J 14: 63. [Google Scholar]
  37. Medlock JM, Leach SA, , 2015. Effect of climate change on vector-borne disease risk in the UK. Lancet Infect Dis 15: 721730. [Google Scholar]
  38. Karim AM, Hussain I, Lee JH, Park KS, Lee SH, , 2017. Surveillance of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Pakistan. Lancet Infect Dis 17: 367368. [Google Scholar]
  39. Alam MM, Khurshid A, Sharif S, Shaukat S, Rana MS, Angez M, Zaidi SS, , 2013. Genetic analysis and epidemiology of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses in Baluchistan province of Pakistan. BMC Infect Dis 13: 201. [Google Scholar]
  40. Al-Tawfiq JA, Memish ZA, , 2014. Mass gathering medicine: 2014 Hajj and Umra preparation as a leading example. Int J Infect Dis 27: 2631. [Google Scholar]
  41. Negredo A, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever@Madrid Working G , 2017. Autochthonous Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Spain. N Engl J Med 377: 154161. [Google Scholar]
  42. Zakhashvili K, Tsertsvadze N, Chikviladze T, Jghenti E, Bekaia M, Kuchuloria T, Hepburn MJ, Imnadze P, Nanuashvili A, , 2010. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in man, Republic of Georgia, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 13261328. [Google Scholar]
  43. Mishra AC, Mehta M, Mourya DT, Gandhi S, , 2011. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in India. Lancet 378: 372. [Google Scholar]
  44. El-Bahnasawy MMM, Sabah AAA, Saleh HAA, Morsy TA, , 2012. The tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Africa, Asia, Europe, and America: what about Egypt? J Egypt Soc Parasitol 42: 373384. [Google Scholar]
  45. Semaško IV, Čumakov MP, Karapetân RI, Vorob’ev AG, Zavodova TI, Matevosân KŠ, Nersesân MA, , 1974. Pervyj slučaj izolâcii virusa Krymskoj gemorragičeskoj lihoradki v Armenii iz krovi bol’nogo. Med Virusol 22: 2528. [Google Scholar]
  46. Alnakib W, Elmekki A, Alkandari S, Majeed HA, , 1983. Congo Crimean hemorrhagic fever in Kuwait–1st report of 2 laboratory documented cases. J Kuwait Med Assoc 17: 163166. [Google Scholar]
  47. Aradaib IE, Erickson BR, Mustafa ME, Khristova ML, Saeed NS, Elageb RM, Nichol ST, , 2010. Nosocomial outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Sudan. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 837839. [Google Scholar]
  48. Papa A, Velo E, Papadimitriou E, Cahani G, Kota M, Bino S, , 2009. Ecology of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever endemic area in Albania. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 9: 713716. [Google Scholar]
  49. Nabeth P, Thior M, Faye O, Simon F, , 2004. Human Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 18811882. [Google Scholar]
  50. Karti SS, 2004. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 13791384. [Google Scholar]
  51. Dunster L, Dunster M, Ofula V, Beti D, Kazooba-Voskamp F, Burt F, Swanepoel R, DeCock KM, , 2002. First documentation of human Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 10051006. [Google Scholar]
  52. Keshtkar-Jahromi M, Sajadi MM, Ansari H, Mardani M, Holakouie-Naieni K, , 2013. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran. Antiviral Res 100: 2028. [Google Scholar]
  53. World Health Organization, 1998. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever in Afghanistan. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/csr/don/1998_05_08a/en/. Accessed September 22, 2017.
  54. Ali N, Chotani RA, Anwar M, Nadeem M, Karamat KA, Tariq WUZ, , 2007. A Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever outbreak in northern Balochistan. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 17: 477481. [Google Scholar]
  55. Smego RA, Jr. Sarwari AR, Siddiqui AR, , 2004. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: prevention and control limitations in a resource-poor country. Clin Infect Dis 38: 17311735. [Google Scholar]
  56. Hasan Z, Atkinson B, Jamil B, Samreen A, Altaf L, Hewson R, , 2014. Short report: diagnostic testing for hemorrhagic fevers in Pakistan: 2007–2013. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91: 12431246. [Google Scholar]
  57. Athar MN, Khalid MA, Ahmad AM, Bashir N, Baqai HZ, Ahmad M, Balouch AH, Bashir K, , 2005. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, February 2002: contact tracing and risk assessment. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 471473. [Google Scholar]
  58. Hussain Q, Shaikh BH, Bhutto AR, Sohaib M, , 2016. An unusual case of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever: prolonged bleeding with successful recovery. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 26: 151153. [Google Scholar]
  59. Sheikh AS, Sheikh AA, Sheikh NS, Rafi US, Asif M, Afridi F, Malik MT, , 2005. Bi-annual surge of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF): a five-year experience. Int J Infect Dis 9: 3742. [Google Scholar]
  60. Burney MI, Ghafoor A, Saleen M, Webb PA, Casals J, , 1980. Nosocomial outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Crimean hemorrhagic fever-Congo virus in Pakistan, January 1976. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29: 941947. [Google Scholar]
  61. Altaf A, Luby S, Ahmed AJ, Zaidi N, Khan AJ, Mirza S, McCormick J, Fisher-Hoch S, , 1998. Outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Quetta, Pakistan: contact tracing and risk assessment. Trop Med Int Health 3: 878882. [Google Scholar]
  62. Majeed B, Dicker R, Nawar A, Badri S, Noah A, Muslem H, , 2012. Morbidity and mortality of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iraq: cases reported to the National Surveillance System, 1990–2010. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 106: 480483. [Google Scholar]
  63. Al-Tikriti SK, 1981. Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Iraq. Bull World Health Organ 59: 8590. [Google Scholar]
  64. Mustafa ML, 2011. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Afghanistan, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 19401941. [Google Scholar]
  65. Khurshid A, Hassan M, Alam MM, Aamir UB, Rehman L, Sharif S, Shaukat S, Rana MS, Angez M, Zaidi SS, , 2015. CCHF virus variants in Pakistan and Afghanistan: emerging diversity and epidemiology. J Clin Virol 67: 2530. [Google Scholar]
  66. Ölschlager S, Gabriel M, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Meyer M, Osborn E, Conger NG, Allan PF, Günther S, , 2011. Complete sequence and phylogenetic characterisation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus from Afghanistan. J Clin Virol 50: 9092. [Google Scholar]
  67. Mofleh J, Ahmad Z, , 2012. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever outbreak investigation in the western region of Afghanistan in 2008. East Mediterr Health J 18: 522526. [Google Scholar]
  68. Georgia NCDC, 2018. Health Care Statistical Yearbook 2016. Available at: http://www.ncdc.ge/Handlers/GetFile.ashx?ID=31eee2a3-9bf5-4558-959b-a4b92f600555. Accessed October 31, 2018.
  69. Nana Mamuchishvili KZ, Chakhunashvili G, lmnadze P, Keshtkar-Jahromi M, Pecor D, Rivard R, , 2017. CCHF in Georgia. 2nd International Conference on Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. Thessaloniki, Greece, September 10–12, 2017. [Google Scholar]
  70. Mourya DT, Viswanathan R, Jadhav SK, Yadav PD, Basu A, Chadha MS, , 2017. Retrospective analysis of clinical information in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever patients: 2014–2015, India. Indian J Med Res 145: 673678. [Google Scholar]
  71. Yadav PD, 2014. Emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Amreli district of Gujarat state, India, June to July 2013. Int J Infect Dis 18: 97100. [Google Scholar]
  72. Mourya DT, Yadav PD, Shete AM, Gurav YK, Raut CG, Jadi RS, Pawar SD, Nichol ST, Mishra AC, , 2012. Detection, isolation and confirmation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in human, ticks and animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010–2011. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1653. [Google Scholar]
  73. Makwana D, Yadav PD, Kelaiya A, Mourya DT, , 2015. First confirmed case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever from Sirohi district in Rajasthan state, India. Indian J Med Res 142: 489491. [Google Scholar]
  74. Yadav PD, 2016. Nosocomial infection of CCHF among health care workers in Rajasthan, India. BMC Infect Dis 16: 624. [Google Scholar]
  75. Yadav PD, Raut CG, Mourya DT, , 2013. Re-occurrence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India (2012): a fatal case report. Indian J Med Res 138: 10271028. [Google Scholar]
  76. Yadav PD, Thacker S, Patil DY, Jain R, Mourya DT, , 2017. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in migrant worker returning from Oman to India, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis 23: 10051008. [Google Scholar]
  77. Idris Al-Abaidani SSA-A, , 2014. Cluster of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Cases in Oman: October 2014. Available at: http://www.promedmail.org/direct.php?id=20141108.2939718. Accessed January 7, 2018.
  78. Scrimgeour EM, Mehta FR, Suleiman AJ, , 1999. Infectious and tropical diseases in Oman: a review. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61: 920925. [Google Scholar]
  79. Al-Zadjali M, Al-Hashim H, Al-Ghilani M, Balkhiar A, , 2013. A case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Oman. Oman Med J 28: 210212. [Google Scholar]
  80. Al Dabal LM, Rahimi Shahmirzadi MR, Baderldin S, Abro A, Zaki A, Dessi Z, Al Eassa E, Khan G, Shuri H, Alwan AM, , 2016. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2010: case report. Iran Red Crescent Med J 18: E38374. [Google Scholar]
  81. Khan AS, 1997. An outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the United Arab Emirates, 1994–1995. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57: 519525. [Google Scholar]
  82. Suleiman MNEH, Muscat-Baron JM, Harries JR, Satti AGO, Platt GS, Bowen ETW, Simpson DIH, , 1980. Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Dubai. An outbreak at the Rashid Hospital. Lancet 316: 939941. [Google Scholar]
  83. el-Azazy OME, Scrimgeour EM, , 1997. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in the western province of Saudi Arabia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91: 275278. [Google Scholar]
  84. Todd CS, Mansoor GF, Buhler C, Rahimi H, Zekria R, Fernandez S, Mikhail AFW, Scott PT, Yingst SL, , 2016. Prevalence of zoonotic and vector-borne infections among Afghan national army recruits in Afghanistan. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 16: 501506. [Google Scholar]
  85. Shanmugam J, Smirnova SE, Chumakov MP, , 1976. Presence of antibody to arboviruses of the Crimean haemorrhagic fever-Congo (CHF-Congo) group in human beings and domestic animals in India. Indian J Med Res 64: 14031413. [Google Scholar]
  86. Chinikar S, 2012. Serological evaluation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in humans with high-risk professions living in enzootic regions of Isfahan province of Iran and genetic analysis of circulating strains. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12: 733738. [Google Scholar]
  87. Mostafavi E, Chinikar S, Esmaeili S, Amiri FB, Tabrizi AM, KhakiFirouz S, , 2012. Seroepidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever among sheep in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12: 739742. [Google Scholar]
  88. Mostafavi E, Haghdoost A, Khakifirouz S, Chinikar S, , 2013. Spatial analysis of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 11351141. [Google Scholar]
  89. Telmadarraiy Z, Ghiasi SM, Moradi M, Vatandoost H, Eshraghian MR, Faghihi F, Zarei Z, Haeri A, Chinikar S, , 2010. A survey of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in livestock and ticks in Ardabil Province, Iran during 2004–2005. Scand J Infect Dis 42: 137141. [Google Scholar]
  90. Tahmasebi F, Ghiasi SM, Mostafavi E, Moradi M, Piazak N, Mozafari A, Haeri A, Fooks AR, Chinikar S, , 2010. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean- Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome isolated from ticks of Hamadan Province of Iran. J Vector Borne Dis 47: 211216. [Google Scholar]
  91. Mohammadian M, 2016. Molecular assay on Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks (Ixodidae) collected from Kermanshah Province, western Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis 10: 381391. [Google Scholar]
  92. Alam MM, Khurshid A, Rana MS, Aamir UB, Salman M, Ahmad M, , 2017. Surveillance of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Pakistan. Lancet Infect Dis 17: 806. [Google Scholar]
  93. Darwish MA, Hoogstraal H, Roberts TJ, Ghazi R, Amer T, , 1983. A sero-epidemiological survey for Bunyaviridae and certain other arboviruses in Pakistan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 77: 446450. [Google Scholar]
  94. Begum F, Wisseman CL, Jr. Casals J, , 1970. Tick-borne viruses of west Pakistan. IV. Viruses similar to or identical with, Crimean hemorrhagic fever (Congo-Semunya), Wad Medani and Pak Argas 461 isolated from ticks of the Changa Manga forest, Lahore district, and of Hunza, Gilgit agency, W. Pakistan. Am J Epidemiol 92: 197202. [Google Scholar]
  95. Karapetân RM, Vorob’ev AG, Semaško IV, Matevosân KŠ, Vopân DS, , 1974. Slučaj krymskoj gemorragičeskoj lihoradki v Armânskoj SSR. Med Virusol 22: 260265. [Google Scholar]
  96. Matevosân KŠ, Semaško IV, Rubin SG, Čumakov MP, , 1974. Antitela k virusu KGL v syvorotkah krovi lûdej i krupnogo rogatogo skota v Armânskoj SSR. Med Virusol 22: 173175. [Google Scholar]
  97. Semaško IV, Čumakov MP, Matevosân Kš, Safarov RK, Marutân ÈM, Postoân SR, Karapetân RM, Baškircev VN, Tkačenko EA, Čunihin SP, , 1975. Itogi rabot v 1972–1974 gg. po vydeleniû i izučeniû virusov KGL-Kongo, Dhori i Bhandža v Azerbajdžane i Armenii. Čumakov MP, ed. Voprosy medicinkoj virusologii, October 21–23, Moscow, USSR, 354–355.
  98. Matevosân KŠ, Semaško IV, Marutân ÈM, Rubin SG, Čumakov MP, , 1974. Obnaruženie v Armânskoj SSR virusa Krymskoj gemorragičeskoj lihoradki v kleŝah Hyalomma plumbeum plumbeum, Hyalomma anatolicum, Rhipicephalus bursa, Boophilus calcaratus. Med Virusol 22: 169172. [Google Scholar]
  99. Hepburn MJ, Rivard R, , 2018. A seroprevalence study of prior exposure to select arthropod-borne and zoonotic infections among rural communities in three regions of Azerbaijan (unpublished). United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases.
  100. Ismailova ST, Rubin SG, Čhumakov MP, Khankišhiev AM, Manafov IN, Berezin VV, Rešhetnikov IA, , 1972. Izučenie potencial’nyh očagov Krymskoj gemorragičeskoj lihoraki (KGL) v Azerbajdžane po dannym serologičeskogo obsledovaniâ domašnih životnyh v reakcii diffuzionnoj precipitacii v agare (RDPA). Čumakov MP, ed. Aktual’nye problemy virusologii i profilaktiki virusnyh zabolevanij. October 24–27, Moscow, USSR, 365–366.
  101. Sokolova EI, Mirzoeva NM, Kulieva NM, , 1976. O vydelenii arbovirusov iz kleŝej v Azerbajdžanskoj SSR. Čumakov MP, ed. Tezisy dokladov na III Vsesoûznom soveŝanii po teoretičeskoj i prikladnoj akarologii, October 4–6, Tashkent, USSR, 218.
  102. Vashakidze E, Mikadze I, , 2015. Epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Georgia. Georgian Med News 247: 5458. [Google Scholar]
  103. Greiner AL, Mamuchishvili N, Salyer SJ, Stauffer K, Geleishvili M, Zakhashvili K, Morgan J, Centers for Disease Control And Prevention; , 2015. Notes from the field: increase in reported Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever cases—country of Georgia, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 64: 228229. [Google Scholar]
  104. Greiner AL, Mamuchishvili N, Kakutia N, Stauffer K, Geleishvili M, Chitadze N, Chikviladze T, Zakhashvili K, Morgan J, Salyer SJ, , 2016. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever knowledge, attitudes, practices, risk factors, and seroprevalence in rural Georgian villages with known transmission in 2014. PLoS One 11: e0158049. [Google Scholar]
  105. Kuchuloria T, 2014. Viral hemorrhagic fever cases in the country of Georgia: acute febrile illness surveillance study results. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91: 246248. [Google Scholar]
  106. Khistawi AN, , 2017. Electronic communication. Baghdad, Iraq: Iraq CDC Surveillance section.
  107. Tantawi HH, Shony MO, Al-Tikriti SK, , 1981. Antibodies to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in domestic animals in Iraq: a seroepidemiological survey. Int J Zoonoses 8: 115120. [Google Scholar]
  108. Al-Nakib W, Lloyd G, El-Mekki A, Platt G, Beeson A, Southee T, , 1984. Preliminary report on arbovirus-antibody prevalence among patients in Kuwait: evidence of Congo/Crimean virus infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 78: 474476. [Google Scholar]
  109. Schwarz TF, Nitschko H, Jäger G, Nsanze H, Longson M, Pugh RNH, Abraham AK, , 1995. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Oman. Lancet 346: 1230. [Google Scholar]
  110. International Society of Infectious Diseases, 2017. Crimean-Congo Hem. Fever–Oman: Case Numbers. Available at: http://www.promedmail.org/. Accessed September 22, 2017.
  111. Hassanein KM, el-Azazy OME, Yousef HM, , 1997. Detection of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus antibodies in humans and imported livestock in Saudi Arabia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91: 536537. [Google Scholar]
  112. Memish ZA, 2011. Seroprevalence of Alkhurma and other hemorrhagic fever viruses, Saudi Arabia. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 23162318. [Google Scholar]
  113. Hassanein KM, El-Azazy OME, , 2000. Isolation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus from ticks on imported Sudanese sheep in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med 20: 153154. [Google Scholar]
  114. Buczek A, Bartosik K, Buczek S, Zając Z, , 2017. Anomalies in Hyalomma marginatum larvae (Acari: Ixodidae) in relation to taxonomic studies. Syst Appl Acarology 22: 423430. [Google Scholar]
  115. Cikman A, Aydin M, Gulhan B, Karakecili F, Kesik OA, Ozcicek A, Akin H, Kara M, , 2016. Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Erzincan Province, Turkey, relationship with geographic features and risk factors. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 16: 199204. [Google Scholar]
  116. Bayram Y, Parlak M, Özkaçmaz A, Çıkman A, Güdücüoǧlu H, Kılıç S, Berktaş M, Andac CA, , 2017. Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Turkey’s Van Province. Jpn J Infect Dis 70: 6568. [Google Scholar]
  117. Serter D, , 1980. Present status of arbovirus sero-epidemiology in the Aegean region of Turkey. Zentralbl Bakteriol 9: 155161. [Google Scholar]
  118. Mertens M, Schuster I, Sas MA, Vatansever Z, Hubalek Z, Güven E, Deniz A, Georgiev G, Peshev R, Groschup MH, , 2016. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Bulgaria and Turkey. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 16: 619623. [Google Scholar]
  119. Orkun Ö, Karaer Z, Çakmak A, Nalbantoğlu S, , 2017. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks in Turkey: a broad range tick surveillance study. Infect Genet Evol 52: 5966. [Google Scholar]
  120. McCartan BM, Hunter AG, Pegram RG, Bourne AS, , 1987. Tick infestations on livestock in the Yemen Arab Republic and their potential as vectors of livestock diseases. Trop Anim Health Prod 19: 2131. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0553
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0553
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 06 Jul 2018
  • Accepted : 10 Oct 2018
  • Published online : 09 Jan 2019

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error