Volume 100, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is a powerful tool to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vaccines and pharmacologics. Investigators at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, Center for Vaccine Development (UMB-CVD) pioneered the technique in the 1970s and continue to advance the frontiers of CHMI research. We reviewed the records of 338 malaria-naive volunteers who underwent CHMI at UMB-CVD with from 1971 until 2017. These 338 volunteers underwent 387 CHMI events, including 60 via intradermal injection or direct venous inoculation (DVI) of purified, cryopreserved sporozoites. No volunteer suffered an unplanned hospitalization or required intravenous therapy related to CHMI. Median prepatency period was longer in challenges using NF54 (9 days) than in those using 7G8 (8 days), = 0.0006 by the log-rank test. With dose optimization of DVI, the prepatent period did not differ between DVI and mosquito bite challenge (log-rank test, = 0.66). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected infection 3 days earlier than thick smears ( < 0.001), and diagnosis by ultrasensitive PCR was associated with less severe symptoms than smear-based diagnosis (39% versus 0%, = 0.0003). Historical studies with NF54 showed a shorter median prepatency period of 10.3 days than more recent studies (median 11.0 days, = 0.02) despite significantly lower salivary gland scores in earlier studies, = 0.0001. The 47-year experience of CHMI at UMB-CVD has led to advancements in sporozoite delivery, diagnostics, and use of heterologous challenge. Additional studies on new challenge strains and genomic data to reflect regional heterogeneity will help advance the use of CHMI as supporting data for vaccine licensure.


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  • Received : 05 Jun 2018
  • Accepted : 03 Dec 2018
  • Published online : 21 Jan 2019

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