1921
Volume 99, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

We describe the case of a 12-year-old boy from Sudan who presented with fever of 1-week duration, headache, cough, and vomiting. A set of diagnostic tests led to the diagnosis of three infectious diseases: visceral leishmaniasis (probable diagnosis based on positive direct agglutination test), enteric fever (blood culture grown with Paratyphi), and brucellosis (blood culture grown with ). The patient received specific treatment of the three infections and recovered. This case illustrates the occurrence and possible implications of coinfections in patients with persistent fever, including conditions that are hard to diagnose in field settings, such as brucellosis and enteric fever.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0466
2018-11-07
2018-11-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/99/5/tpmd180466.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0466&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alirol E, 2016. Diagnosis of persistent fever in the tropics: set of standard operating procedures used in the NIDIAG febrile syndrome study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004749.
  2. Zijlstra EE, el-Hassan AM, , 2001. Leishmaniasis in Sudan. Visceral leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 (Suppl 1): S27S58.
  3. Kirk R, Sati MH, , 1940. Studies in leishmaniasis in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. 11. Skin and lymph glands in kala-azar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 33: 501506.
  4. Alvar J, Vélez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, Jannin J, den Boer M, the WHO Leishmaniasis Control Team; , 2012. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS One 7: e35671.
  5. Seaman J, Mercer AJ, Sondorp E, , 1996. The epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis in western Upper Nile, southern Sudan: course and impact from 1984 to 1994, 1996. Int J Epidemiol 25: 862971.
  6. EL-Safi SH, Bucheton B, Kheir MM, Musa HA, EL-Obaid M, Hammad A, Dessein A, , 2002. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Atbara River area, eastern Sudan: the outbreak of Barbar El Fugara village (1996–1997). Microbes Infect 4: 14391447.
  7. Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED, , 2004. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bull World Health Organ 82: 346353.
  8. Ministry of Health, Gedaref State, 2010. Enteric Fever Annual Records.
  9. Hyams KC, Oldfield EC, Scott RM, Bourgeois AL, Gardiner H, Pazzaglia G, Moussa M, Saleh AS, Dawi OE, Daniell FD, , 1986. Evaluation of febrile patients in Port Sudan, Sudan: isolation of dengue virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 860865.
  10. Franco MP, Mulder M, Gilman RH, Smits HL, , 2007. Human brucellosis. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 775786.
  11. Young EJ, , 1995. An overview of human brucellosis. Clin Infect Dis 21: 283289.
  12. Gumaa MM, Osman HM, Omer MM, El Sanousi EM, Godfroid J, Ahmed AM, , 2014. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep and isolation of Brucella abortus biovar 6 in Kassala state, eastern Sudan. Rev Sci Tech 33: 957965.
  13. Omer MM, Musa MT, Bakhiet MR, Perrett L, , 2010. Brucellosis in camels, cattle and humans: associations and evaluation of serological tests used for diagnosis of the disease in certain nomadic localities in Sudan. Rev Sci Tech 29: 663669.
  14. El-Ansary EH, Mohammed BA, Hamad AR, Karom AG, , 2001. Brucellosis among animals and human contacts in eastern Sudan. Saudi Med J 22: 577579.
  15. Mohd MG, , 1989. Brucellosis in the Gezira area, central Sudan. J Trop Med Hyg 92: 8688.
  16. Erwa HH, , 1966. Isolation of Brucella abortus in the Sudan. J Trop Med Hyg 69: 201202.
  17. World Health Organization, 2018. Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection. Available at: http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/burden/hiv_coinfection/burden_hiv_coinfection/en/. Accessed August 30, 2018.
  18. Hasnain MG, Ghosh P, Sharafat Sonin MS, Baker J, Mondal D, , 2014. First case of pulmonary tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniasis coinfection successfully treated with antituberculosis drug and liposomal amphotericin. Clin Case Rep 2: 331332.
  19. Van den Bogaart E, 2013. Concomitant malaria among visceral leishmaniasis in-patients from Gedarif and Sennar states, Sudan: a retrospective case-control study. BMC Public Health 13: 332.
  20. Kayserılı E, Hizarcioğlu M, Gülez P, Apa H, Keskın S, , 2005. Co-existence of kala-azar and salmonellosis in a 16 month-old baby? Or a false positive widal reaction in kala-azar? [article in Turkish] Turkiye Parazitol Derg 29: 141144.
  21. Parker TM, Murray CK, Richards AL, Samir A, Ismail T, Fadeel MA, Jiang J, Wasfy MO, Pimentel G, , 2007. Concurrent infections in acute febrile illness patients in Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 390392.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0466
Loading
  • Received : 01 Jun 2018
  • Accepted : 05 Aug 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error