Volume 100, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Influenza transmission is increased among household contacts. Vaccination decreases transmission; however it is unclear how vaccinating a single individual alters disease risk among household contacts, particularly in regions with low vaccination coverage. Pregnant women were randomized to influenza or control vaccination. Households were visited weekly until infants born to enrolled women reached 6 months. Household contacts younger than 5 years were tested for laboratory-confirmed influenza (LCI). Incidence of LCI and rate ratios (RtR) comparing incidence between vaccine groups were calculated. The secondary infection rate (SIR) was calculated for households where LCI was detected. The H1N1 strain in the vaccine was a match for circulating H1N1 during the study, thus, all analyses were performed for H1N1-LCI and any LCI. A total of 5,345 household contacts younger than 5 years followed for a mean of 228 days (standard deviation [SD] = 45 days) experienced 2,957 influenza-like illness episodes. Incidence of any LCI and H1N1-LCI was 23 ( = 276) and 7.3 per 100,000 days ( = 89), respectively. Household contacts of women who received influenza vaccine had fewer LCI (RtR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.14) and fewer H1N1-LCI (RtR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.11) episodes than contacts in control households. Incidence of LCI and household SIR were low in households of women enrolled in an influenza vaccine trial in Mali. Although low incidence made statistical significance difficult to detect, there was a trend for decreased rates of H1N1-LCI in households where a pregnant mother received influenza vaccination.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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Supplemental Tables

  • Received : 28 May 2018
  • Accepted : 17 Oct 2018
  • Published online : 03 Dec 2018

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