Volume 99, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Headache in patients with calcified neurocysticercosis (NCC) is probably common but has been largely overlooked. We aimed to assess the presence, characteristics, and diagnosis of headache across patients with calcified NCC and their matched controls. In this case–control study nested to a population-based cohort, Atahualpa residents aged ≥ 20 years with calcified NCC were identified as case patients and paired 1:1 to age- and gender-matched randomly selected controls. A culturally adapted questionnaire was derived from the EUROLIGHT. Headache diagnosis was established according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition. Conditional logistic regression models for matched paired data were fitted to assess the independent association between calcified NCC (as the exposure) and headache variables, after adjusting for education, alcohol intake, depression, and epilepsy. The selection process generated 106 case patients and their matched controls. Lifetime headache prevalence (odds ratio [OR]: 4.18; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.79–9.75; = 0.001), current headaches (OR: 4.19; 95% CI: 1.92–9.16; < 0.001), and intense headaches (OR: 9.47; 95% CI: 2.88–31.19; < 0.001) were more frequent among cases than in controls. In addition, migraine (but not other forms of headache) was more frequent among subjects with calcified NCC (OR: 4.89; 95% CI: 2.36–11.39; < 0.001). This study shows a robust epidemiological association between headache—particularly migraine—and calcified NCC.


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  • Received : 12 Apr 2018
  • Accepted : 20 May 2018
  • Published online : 25 Jun 2018

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