1921
Volume 100, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

The pork tapeworm, , is among the leading causes of preventable epilepsy in the world and is common in rural areas of developing countries where sanitation is limited and pigs have access to human feces. Prior studies in rural villages of Peru have observed clusters of cysticercosis among pigs that live near human tapeworm carriers. Such spatial analyses, however, have been limited by incomplete participation and substandard diagnostic tests. In this study, we evaluated the association between necropsy-confirmed cysticercosis in pigs and their distance to tapeworm carriers in six villages in northern Peru. A total of six (1.4%) tapeworm carriers were detected using copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and seven of 10 (70%) pigs belonging to the tapeworm carriers were found with viable cyst infection on necropsy. This was significantly greater than the prevalence of viable cyst infection among pigs living < 500 m (11%) and > 500 m (0.5%) from a tapeworm carrier ( < 0.001 for distance trend). Similar statistically significant prevalence gradients were observed after adjustment for possible confounders and for other pig-level outcomes including infection with > 10 viable cysts, degenerated cyst infection, and serological outcomes. This investigation confirms that porcine cysticercosis clusters strongly around tapeworm carriers in endemic rural regions of northern Peru and supports interventions that target these hotspots.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0296
2018-12-17
2020-07-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/100/2/tpmd180296.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0296&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Commission on Tropical Diseases of the International League Against Epilepsy, 1994. Relationship between epilepsy and tropical diseases. Epilepsia 35: 8993.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Lescano AG, García HH, Gilman RH, Guezala MC, Tsang VCW, Gavidia CM, Rodriguez S, Moulton LH, Green JA, Gonzalez AE; Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru, 2007. Swine cysticercosis hotspots surrounding Taenia solium tapeworm carriers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 376383.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. O’Neal SE et al., 2012. Geographic correlation between tapeworm carriers and heavily infected cysticercotic pigs. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1953.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Pray IW, Ayvar V, Gamboa R, Muro C, Moyano LM, Benavides V, Flecker RH, Garcia HH, O’Neal SE, 2017. Spatial relationship between Taenia solium tapeworm carriers and necropsy cyst burden in pigs. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11: e0005536.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. O’Neal SE, Moyano LM, Ayvar V, Rodriguez S, Gavidia C, Wilkins PP, Gilman RH, Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE; Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru, 2014. Ring-screening to control endemic transmission of Taenia solium. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3125.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Garcia HH et al., 2016. Elimination of Taenia solium transmission in northern Peru. N Engl J Med 374: 23352344.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Tsang VC, Brand JA, Boyer AE, 1989. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay and glycoprotein antigens for diagnosing human cysticercosis (Taenia solium). J Infect Dis 159: 5059.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Tsang VCW, Pilcher JA, Zhou W, Boyer AE, Kamango-Sollo EIP, Rhoads ML, Murrell KD, Schantz PM, Gilman RH, 1991. Efficacy of the immunoblot assay for cysticercosis in pigs and modulated expression of distinct IgM/ IgG activities to Taenia solium antigens in experimental infections. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 29: 6978.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Jayashi CM, Gonzalez AE, Castillo Neyra R, Rodríguez S, García HH, Lightowlers MW, 2014. Validity of the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. Vet Parasitol 199: 4249.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Muro C et al., 2017. Porcine cysticercosis: possible cross-reactivity of taenia hydatigena to GP50 antigen in the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay. Am J Trop Med Hyg 97: 18301832.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Engel HN, Claire LE, 1986. Anatomy. Leman AD, Straw BE, Mengelin WL, eds. Diseases of Swine. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 325.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bustos JA et al., 2012. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19: 570573.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Allan JC, Avila G, Garcia Noval J, Flisser A, Craig PS, 1990. Immunodiagnosis of taeniasis by coproantigen detection. Parasitology 101: 473477.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Pearson RD, Hewlett EL, 1985. Niclosamide therapy for tapeworm infections. Ann Intern Med 102: 550551.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Flisser A, Madrazo I, Plancarte A, Schantz P, Allan J, Craig P, Sarti E, 1993. Neurological symptoms in occult neurocysticercosis after single taeniacidal dose of praziquantel. Lancet 342: 748.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Allan JC, Velasquez-Tohom M, Torres-Alvarez R, Yurrita P, Garcia-Noval J, 1996. Field trial of the coproantigen-based diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54: 352356.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Tello R, Terashima A, Marcos LA, Machicado J, Canales M, Gotuzzo E, 2012. Highly effective and inexpensive parasitological technique for diagnosis of intestinal parasites in developing countries: spontaneous sedimentation technique in tube. Int J Infect Dis 16: 20112013.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Mayta H, Talley A, Gilman RH, Jimenez J, Verastegui M, Ruiz M, Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, 2000. Differentiating Taenia solium and Taenia saginata infections by simple hematoxylin-eosin staining and PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. J Clin Microbiol 38: 133137.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Yolken RH, Stopa PJ, 1979. Analysis of nonspecific reactions in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing for human rotavirus. J Clin Microbiol 10: 703707.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Allan JC, Wilkins PP, Tsang VCW, Craig PS, 2003. Immunodiagnostic tools for taeniasis. Acta Trop 87: 8793.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Sikasunge CS, Johansen MV, Willingham AL, Leifsson PS, Phiri IK, 2008. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: viability of cysticerci and persistency of antibodies and cysticercal antigens after treatment with oxfendazole. Vet Parasitol 158: 5766.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nelder JA, Wedderburn RWM, 1972. Generalized lineal models. J R Stat Soc Ser A 135: 370384.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Pray IW, Swanson DJ, Ayvar V, Muro C, Moyano LM, Gonzalez AE, Garcia HH, O’Neal SE; Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru, 2016. GPS tracking of free-ranging pigs to evaluate ring strategies for the control of cysticercosis/taeniasis in Peru. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004591.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Pawlowsky Z, 2002. Taenia solium: basic biology and transmission. Singh G, Prabhakar S, eds. Taenia solium Cysticercosis: From Basic to Clinical Science. New York, NY: CABI Publishing, 114.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Braae UC, Harrison W, Lekule F, Magnussen P, Johansen MV, 2015. Feedstuff and poor latrines may put pigs at risk of cysticercosis—a case-control study. Vet Parasitol 214: 187191.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Huerta M et al., 2008. Parasite contamination of soil in households of a Mexican rural community endemic for neurocysticercosis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102: 374379.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Thevenet PS, Jensen O, Drut R, Cerrone GE, Grenóvero MS, Alvarez HM, Targovnik HM, Basualdo JA, 2005. Viability and infectiousness of eggs of Echinococcus granulosus aged under natural conditions of inferior arid climate. Vet Parasitol 133: 7177.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Wachira TM, Macpherson CN, Gathuma JM, 1991. Release and survival of Echinococcus eggs in different environments in Turkana, and their possible impact on the incidence of hydatidosis in man and livestock. J Helminthol 65: 5561.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ilsøe B, Kyvsgaard NC, Nansen P, Henriksen SA, 1990. A study on the survival of Taenia saginata eggs on soil in Denmark. Acta Vet Scand 31: 153158.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Coman BJ, Rickard MD, 1977. A comparison of in vitro and in vivo estimates of the viability of Taenia pisiformis eggs aged under controlled conditions, and their ability to immunise against a challenge infection. Int J Parasitol 7: 1520.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lawson JR, Gemmell MA, 1990. Transmission of taeniid tapeworm eggs via blowflies to intermediate hosts. Parasitology 100: 143146.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Gomez-Puerta LA, Lopez-Urbina MT, Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, 2014. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes. Rev Bras Parasitol Veterinária 23: 9497.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Pajuelo MJ et al., 2015 Identification and characterization of microsatellite markers derived from the whole genome analysis of Taenia solium. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: 115.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0296
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0296
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 06 Apr 2018
  • Accepted : 30 Oct 2018
  • Published online : 17 Dec 2018
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error