Volume 100, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Gastrointestinal parasites have diverse life cycles that can involve people, animals, and the environment (e.g., water and soil), demonstrating the utility of One Health frameworks in characterizing infection risk. Kosumpee Forest Park (Thailand) is home to a dense population of long-tailed macaques () that frequently interact with tourists and local residents. Our study investigated the presence of zoonotic parasites, and barriers to healthy coexistence by conducting stool analysis on macaques ( = 102) and people ( = 115), and by examining risk factors for infection with a household questionnaire ( = 95). Overall, 44% of macaques and 12% of people were infected with one or more gastrointestinal helminths, including spp., spp., and sp. An adults-only generalized linear mixed model identified three factors significantly associated with human infection: household size, occupational exposure, and contact with macaque feces at home. Participants identified both advantages and disadvantages to living in close contact with macaques, suggesting that interventions to improve human and animal health in Kosumpee Forest Park would be welcome.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Fuentes A, Gumert MD, Jones-Engel L, , 2011. Monkeys on the Edge: Ecology and Management of Long-Tailed Macaques and Their Interface with Humans. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]
  2. Malaivijitnond S, Hamada Y, Varavudhi P, Takenaka O, , 2005. The current distribution and status of macaques in Thailand. Nat Hist J Chulalorgkorn Univ 1: 3545. [Google Scholar]
  3. Malaivijitnond S, Hamada Y, , 2008. Current situation and status of long-tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand. Nat Hist J Chulalorgkorn Univ 8: 185204. [Google Scholar]
  4. Roos C, Boonratana R, Supriatna J, Fellowes JR, Groves CP, Nash SD, Rylands AB, Mittermeier RA, , 2014. An updated taxonomy and conservation status review of Asian primates. Asian Primates J 4: 238. [Google Scholar]
  5. Jones-Engel L, Engel GA, Schillact MA, Froehlich J, Paputungan U, Kyes RC, , 2004. Prevalence of enteric parasites in pet macaques in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Am J Primatol 62: 7182. [Google Scholar]
  6. Lane-DeGraaf K, Putra IG, Wandia IN, Rompis A, Hollocher H, Fuentes A, , 2014. Human behavior and opportunities for parasite transmission in communities surrounding long-tailed macaque populations in Bali, Indonesia. Am J Primatol 76: 159167. [Google Scholar]
  7. Demetria C, 2018. Reemergence of Reston ebolavirus in Cynomolgus monkeys, the Philippines, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis 24: 1285. [Google Scholar]
  8. Lee MH, 2015. Macacine herpesvirus 1 in long-tailed macaques, Malaysia, 2009–2011. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 1107. [Google Scholar]
  9. Gong W, Yang Y, Luo Y, Li N, Bai X, Liu Y, Zhang J, Chen M, Zhang C, Wu X, , 2017. An alert of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of rhesus macaques in a wild zoo in China. Exp Animals 66: 357365. [Google Scholar]
  10. Farkas T, , 2016. Natural norovirus infections in rhesus macaques. Emerg Infect Dis 22: 1272. [Google Scholar]
  11. Sato K, 2015. Experimental evaluation of the zoonotic infection potency of Simian retrovirus type 4 using humanized mouse model. Scientific Reports 14: 14040. [Google Scholar]
  12. Sricharern W, Inpankaew T, Keawmongkol S, Supanam J, Stich RW, Jittapalapong S, , 2016. Molecular detection and prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand. Infect Gen Evol 40: 310314. [Google Scholar]
  13. Zanzani SA, Gazzonis AL, Epis S, Manfredi MT, , 2016. Study of the gastrointestinal parasitic fauna of captive non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis). Parasitology Res 115: 307312. [Google Scholar]
  14. Luong TV, , 2002. Prevention of Intestinal Worm Infections through Improved Sanitation and Hygiene. Bangkok, Thailand: Office UEAaPR, ed. Unicef.
  15. Wongsaroj T, Nithikathkul C, Rojkitikul W, Nakai W, Royal L, , 2014. National survey of helminthiasis in Thailand. Asian Biomed 8: 779783. [Google Scholar]
  16. Wenz-Mucke A, Sithithaworn P, Petney T, Taraschewski H, , 2013. Human contact influences the foraging behaviour and parasite community in long-tailed macaques. Parasitol 140: 709718. [Google Scholar]
  17. Kyes R, Tanee T, Thamsenanupap P, Karaket A, Kyes P, , 2019. Population status of the long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at Kosumpee Forest Park, Maha Sarakham, Thailand. Am J Primatol (In press). [Google Scholar]
  18. Ministry of Public Health, 2014. Village Health Volunteer Database. Available at: http://www.thaiphc.net/. Accessed May 19, 2017.
  19. Climate-Data.org. Climate: Maha Sarakham, 2017. Available at: https://en.climate-data.org/location/37434/. Accessed May 15, 2017.
  20. Davis MF, Rankin SC, Schurer JM, Cole S, Conti L, Rabinowitz P, Group CE, , 2017. Checklist for one health epidemiological reporting of evidence (COHERE). One Health 4: 1421. [Google Scholar]
  21. Smith P, Wiles S, Malone J, Monahan C, , 2008. Collection, preservation, and diagnostic methods. Baker D, ed. Flynn’s parasites of laboratory animals. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  22. Little M, , 1966. Comparative morphology of six species of Strongyloides (Nematoda) and redefinition of the genus. J Parasitol 52: 6984. [Google Scholar]
  23. Boonjaraspinyo S, Boonmars T, Kaewsamut B, Ekobol N, Laummaunwai P, Aukkanimart R, Wonkchalee N, Juasook A, Sriraj P, , 2013. A cross-sectional study on intestinal parasitic infections in rural communities, northeast Thailand. Korean J Parasitol 51: 727734. [Google Scholar]
  24. Fuentes A, , 2006. Human culture and monkey behavior: assessing the contexts of potential pathogen transmission between macaques and humans. Am J Primatol 68: 880896. [Google Scholar]
  25. Fuentes A, Kalchik S, Gettler L, Kwiatt A, Konecki M, Jones-Engel L, , 2008. Characterizing human-macaque interactions in Singapore. Am J Primatol 70: 879883. [Google Scholar]
  26. Kyes R, Iskandar E, Pamungkus J, Gumert M, Fuentes A, Jones-Engel L, , 2011. Preliminary survey of the longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) on Java, Indonesia: distribution and human-primate conflict. , eds. Monkeys on the Edge: Ecology and Management of Long-Tailed Macaques and their Interface with Humans. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 6569. [Google Scholar]
  27. Rabinowitz P, Odofin L, Dein F, , 2008. From “us vs. them” to “shared risk”: can animals help link environmental factors to human health? EcoHealth 5: 224229. [Google Scholar]
  28. Rabinowitz P, Scotch M, Conti L, , 2009. Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks. Vet Ital 45: 2334. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 21 Mar 2018
  • Accepted : 02 Nov 2018
  • Published online : 07 Jan 2019

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error