Volume 99, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is widely prevalent on the Eurasian continent, including Japan, but four cases of TBE have been reported in Japan. To inspect unconfirmed TBE cases in Japan, we conducted a retrospective seroepidemiological study of a total of 158 samples from 81 meningoencephalitis patients suspected as Lyme disease. Two serum samples from one patient showed neutralizing antibodies against TBE virus. The patient with severe and progressive encephalitis had a history of tick bite in Hokkaido in 2012. These results demonstrated that tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) case was actually unconfirmed in Japan. Further seroepidemiological surveys are required to identify unconfirmed TBEV infections to consider the pros and cons of introducing specific countermeasures including vaccination in Japan.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Mansfield KL, Johnson N, Phipps LP, Stephenson JR, Fooks AR, Solomon T, 2009. Tick-borne encephalitis virus—a review of an emerging zoonosis. J Gen Virol 90: 17811794.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Takashima I et al., 1997. A case of tick-borne encephalitis in Japan and isolation of the the virus. J Clin Microbiol 35: 19431947.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Yoshii K, Tajima Y, Bando K, Moriuchi R, 2016. A confirmed case of tick-borne encephalitis in Hokkaido in 2016. Infect Agents Surveill Rep 38: 126.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Yamaguchi H et al., 2018. Confirmed cases of tick-borne encephalitis in Hokkaido in 2017. Infect Agents Surveill Rep 39: 4647.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Yoshii K et al., 2011. Epizootiological study of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 73: 409412.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Miyamoto K, Nakao M, Uchikawa K, Fujita H, 1992. Prevalence of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in ixodid ticks of Japan, with special reference to a new potential vector, Ixodes ovatus (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 29: 216220.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Frost HM, Schotthoefer AM, Thomm AM, Dupuis AP 2nd, Kehl SC, Kramer LD, Fritsche TR, Harrington YA, Knox KK, 2017. Serologic evidence of Powassan virus infection in patients with suspected Lyme disease. Emerg Infect Dis 23: 13841388.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Venugopal K, Buckley A, Reid HW, Gould EA, 1992. Nucleotide sequence of the envelope glycoprotein of Negishi virus shows very close homology to louping ill virus. Virology 190: 515521.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Okuno T, Oya A, Ito T, 1961. The identification of Negishi virus, a presumably new member of Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus family isolated in Japan. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 14: 5159.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Yoshii K, Kojima R, Nishiura H, 2017. Unrecognized subclinical infection with tickborne encephalitis virus, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis 23: 17531754.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Leonova GN, Pavlenko EV, 2009. Characterization of neutralizing antibodies to far eastern of tick-borne encephalitis virus subtype and the antibody avidity for four tick-borne encephalitis vaccines in human. Vaccine 11: 28992904.
    [Google Scholar]
  • Received : 09 Mar 2018
  • Accepted : 27 Mar 2018
  • Published online : 29 May 2018
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error