image of High Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase CTX-M–Producing Escherichia coli in Small-Scale Poultry Farming in Rural Ecuador
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Small-scale farming may have large impacts on the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance to humans. We conducted an observational study to evaluate antibiotic-resistant populations from poultry and humans in rural northwestern Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Our study site is a remote region with historically low resistance levels of third-generation antibiotics such cefotaxime (CTX), a clinically relevant antibiotic, in both poultry and humans. Our study revealed 1) high CTX resistance (66.1%) in farmed broiler chickens, 2) an increase in CTX resistance over time in backyard chicken not fed antibiotics (2.3–17.9%), and 3) identical sequences from human and chicken bacteria, suggesting a spillover event. These findings provide evidence that small-scale meat production operations have direct impacts on the spread and selection of clinically important antibiotics among underdeveloped settings.


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  • Received : 27 Feb 2018
  • Accepted : 17 Oct 2018
  • Published online : 19 Nov 2018
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