1921
Volume 99, Issue 3_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

A very high incidence of typhoid was described in studies conducted in urban locations on the Indian subcontinent at the end of the twentieth century. Despite their availability, licensed immunogenic conjugate typhoid vaccines have not been introduced in the national immunization program, in part, because of a lack of understanding of where and for whom prevention is most necessary. Uncertainty regarding the burden of disease is based on the lack of reliable, recent estimates of culture-confirmed typhoid and an observed trend of low isolations of Typhi and fewer complications at large referral hospitals in India. In this article, we examine the trends of Typhi isolation at three large tertiary care centers across India over 15 years and describe trends of recognized risk factors for typhoid from published literature. There appears to be a decline in the isolation of Typhi in blood cultures, which is more apparent in the past 5 years. These trends are temporally related to economic improvement, female literacy, and the use of antibiotics such as cephalosporins and azithromycin. The analysis of trends of culture-confirmed typhoid may not accurately capture the typhoid incidence trends if antibiotic use confounds the burden of disease presenting to larger facilities. Emerging antimicrobial resistance may result in a resurgence of disease if the underlying incidence and transmission of typhoid are not adequately addressed through public health approaches.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0139
2018-07-25
2019-06-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/99/3_Suppl/tpmd180139.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0139&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Mogasale V, Maskery B, Ochiai RL, Lee JS, Mogasale VV, Ramani E, Kim YE, Park JK, Wierzba TF, , 2014. Burden of typhoid fever in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic, literature-based update with risk-factor adjustment. Lancet Glob Health 2: e570e580. [Google Scholar]
  2. Buckle GC, Walker CL, Black RE, , 2010. Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever: systematic review to estimate global morbidity and mortality for 2010. J Glob Health 2: 010401. [Google Scholar]
  3. Lozano R, 2012. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380: 20952128. [Google Scholar]
  4. Ochiai RL, Domi Typhoid Study Group , 2008. A study of typhoid fever in five Asian countries: disease burden and implications for controls. Bull World Health Organ 86: 260268. [Google Scholar]
  5. Sur D, 2009. A cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of Vi typhoid vaccine in India. N Engl J Med 361: 335344. [Google Scholar]
  6. Bahl R, Sinha A, Poulos C, Whittington D, Sazawal S, Kumar R, Mahalanabis D, Acosta CJ, Clements JD, Bahn MK, , 2004. Costs of illness due to typhoid fever in an Indian urban slum community: implications for vaccination policy. J Health Popul Nutr 22: 304310. [Google Scholar]
  7. Sinha A, Sazawal S, Kumar R, Sood S, Reddaiah VP, Singh B, Rao M, Naficy A, Clemens JD, Bhan MK, , 1999. Typhoid fever in children aged less than 5 years. Lancet 354: 734737. [Google Scholar]
  8. Brooks WA, Hossain A, Goswami D, Nahar K, Alam K, Ahmed N, Naheed A, Nair GB, Luby S, Breiman RF, , 2005. Bacteremic typhoid fever in children in an urban slum, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 326329. [Google Scholar]
  9. John J, Van Aart CJ, Grassly NC, , 2016. The burden of typhoid and paratyphoid in India: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004616. [Google Scholar]
  10. Arora RK, Gupta A, Joshi NM, Kataria VK, Lall P, Anand AC, , 1992. Multidrug resistant typhoid fever: study of an outbreak in Calcutta. Indian Pediatr 29: 6166. [Google Scholar]
  11. Bhattacharya SS, Das U, Choudhury BK, , 2011. Occurrence & antibiogram of Salmonella typhi & S. Paratyphi A isolated from Rourkela, Orissa. Indian J Med Res 133: 431433. [Google Scholar]
  12. Choudhary A, Gopalakrishnan R, Nambi PS, Ramasubramanian V, Ghafur KA, Thirunarayan MA, , 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovars in a tertiary care hospital in southern India. Indian J Med Res 137: 800802. [Google Scholar]
  13. Das U, Bhattacharya SS, , 2000. Multidrug resistant Salmonella typhi in Rourkela, Orissa. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 43: 135138. [Google Scholar]
  14. Wong VK, 2015. Phylogeographical analysis of the dominant multidrug-resistant H58 clade of Salmonella Typhi identifies inter- and intracontinental transmission events. Nat Genet 47: 632639. [Google Scholar]
  15. Divyashree S, Nabarro LE, Veeraraghavan B, Rupali P, , 2016. Enteric fever in India: current scenario and future directions. Trop Med Int Health 21: 12551262. [Google Scholar]
  16. Menezes GA, Harish BN, Khan MA, Goessens WH, Hays JP, , 2012. Antimicrobial resistance trends in blood culture positive Salmonella typhi isolates from Pondicherry, India, 2005–2009. Clin Microbiol Infect 18: 239245. [Google Scholar]
  17. Shetty AK, Shetty IN, Furtado ZV, Antony B, Boloor R, , 2012. Antibiogram of Salmonella isolates from blood with an emphasis on nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol susceptibility in a tertiary care hospital in coastal Karnataka: a prospective study. J Lab Physicians 4: 7477. [Google Scholar]
  18. Raza S, Tamrakar R, Bhatt CP, Joshi SK, , 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A in a tertiary care hospital. J Nepal Health Res Counc 10: 214217. [Google Scholar]
  19. Dutta S, Das S, Mitra U, Jain P, Roy I, Ganguly SS, Ray U, Dutta P, Paul DK, , 2014. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence profiles and molecular subtypes of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A blood isolates from Kolkata, India during 2009–2013. PLoS One 9: e101347. [Google Scholar]
  20. Singhal L, Gupta PK, Kale P, Gautam V, Ray P, , 2014. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella typhi from north India (2001–2012). Indian J Med Microbiol 32: 149152. [Google Scholar]
  21. Manesh A, Balaji V, Kumar DR, Rupali P, , 2017. A case of clinical and microbiological failure of azithromycin therapy in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi despite low azithromycin MIC. Int J Infect Dis 54: 6263. [Google Scholar]
  22. Capoor MR, Rawat D, Nair D, Hasan AS, Deb M, Aggarwal P, Pillai P, , 2007. In vitro activity of azithromycin, newer quinolones and cephalosporins in ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella causing enteric fever. J Med Microbiol 56: 14901494. [Google Scholar]
  23. Fernando S, Molland JG, Gottlieb T, , 2012. Failure of oral antibiotic therapy, including azithromycin, in the treatment of a recurrent breast abscess caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A. Pathog Glob Health 106: 366369. [Google Scholar]
  24. Rai S, Jain S, Prasad KN, Ghoshal U, Dhole TN, , 2012. Rationale of azithromycin prescribing practices for enteric fever in India. Indian J Med Microbiol 30: 3033. [Google Scholar]
  25. World Health Organization, 2015. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water - 2015 Update and MDG Assessment. Available at: http://files.unicef.org/publications/files/Progress_on_Sanitation_and_Drinking_Water_2015_Update_.pdf. Accessed November 1, 2016.
  26. World Bank, 2016. Country Data, India. Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/country/india. Accessed November 1, 2016.
  27. Jain S, Das Chugh T, , 2013. Antimicrobial resistance among blood culture isolates of Salmonella enterica in New Delhi. J Infect Dev Ctries 7: 788795. [Google Scholar]
  28. Muthu G, Suresh A, Gnadesikan S, Ramesh S, , 2011. Studies on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of salmonella isolates from Chennai, India. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2: 435442. [Google Scholar]
  29. Laxminarayan R, Chaudhury RR, , 2016. Antibiotic resistance in India: drivers and opportunities for action. PLoS Med 13: e1001974. [Google Scholar]
  30. Morgan DJ, Okeke IN, Laxminarayan R, Perencevich EN, Weisenberg S, , 2011. Non-prescription antimicrobial use worldwide: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis 11: 692701. [Google Scholar]
  31. Van Boeckel TP, Gandra S, Ashok A, Caudron Q, Grenfell BT, Levin SA, Laxminarayan R, , 2014. Global antibiotic consumption 2000 to 2010: an analysis of national pharmaceutical sales data. Lancet Infect Dis 14: 742750. [Google Scholar]
  32. Patil SR, Arnold BF, Salvatore AL, Briceno B, Ganguly S, Colford JM, Jr. Gertler PJ, , 2014. The effect of India’s total sanitation campaign on defecation behaviors and child health in rural Madhya Pradesh: a cluster randomized controlled trial. PLoS Med 11: e1001709. [Google Scholar]
  33. Hutton G, , 2013. Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply. J Water Health 11: 112. [Google Scholar]
  34. Steele AD, Hay Burgess DC, Diaz Z, Carey ME, Zaidi AK, , 2016. Challenges and opportunities for typhoid fever control: a call for coordinated action. Clin Infect Dis 62 (Suppl 1): S4S8. [Google Scholar]
  35. Capoor MR, Nair D, , 2010. Quinolone and cephalosporin resistance in enteric fever. J Glob Infect Dis 2: 258262. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0139
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0139
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 Feb 2018
  • Accepted : 07 Jun 2018
  • Published online : 25 Jul 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error