1921
Volume 100, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Many species of ticks are commonly found infesting wild birds in South America, where birds are important hosts for several arboviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). In this study, WNV and SLEV transmission experiments were performed to evaluate the vector competence of three South American tick species: , , and . Larval and nymphal ticks of each species were allowed to feed on chicks needle inoculated with WNV or SLEV. All three species acquired either WNV or SLEV through larval feeding, with infection rates varying from 3.1% to 100% for WNV and from 0% to 35.7% for SLEV in engorged larvae. Transstadial perpetuation of the viruses was demonstrated in the molted nymphs, with WNV infection rates varying from 0% to 33.7% and SLEV infection rates from 13.6% to 23.8%. Although nymphal ticks also acquired either virus through feeding, transstadial perpetuation to adult ticks was lower, with virus detection in only 3.2% of and 11.5% of unfed adult ticks. On the other hand, vector competence for nymphs (exposed to WNV or SLEV through larval feeding) and adult ticks (exposed to WNV or SLEV through larval or nymphal feeding) was null in all cases. Although our results indicate transstadial perpetuation of WNV or SLEV in the three tick species, the ticks were not competent to transmit these agents to susceptible hosts. The role of these ixodid tick species in the epidemiology of WNV and SLEV might be insignificant, even though at least and are frequent bird ticks in Latin America, so the virus could survive winter in the fed larvae. However, future studies are required to determine the implications that this could have, as well as analyze the vector competence of other common bird tick species in South America.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0134
2019-03-18
2020-09-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/100/5/tpmd180134.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0134&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Lanciotti RS et al., 1999. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science 286: 23332337.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Fang Y, Reisen WK, 2006. Previous infection with West Nile or St. Louis encephalitis viruses provides cross protection during reinfection in house finches. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 480485.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Smithburn KC, Hughes TP, Burke AW, Paul JH, 1940. A neurotropic virus isolated from the blood of a native of Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 20: 471492.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chancey C, Grinev A, Volkova E, Rios M, 2015. The global ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus. Biomed Res Int 2015: 376230. doi: 10.1155/2015/376230.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Campbell GL, Marfin AA, Lanciotti RS, Gubler DJ, 2002. West Nile virus. Lancet Infect Dis 2: 519529.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Morales MA et al., 2006. West Nile virus isolation from equines in Argentina, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 15591561.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Diaz LA et al., 2008. West Nile virus in birds, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 689691.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Lumsden LL, 1958. St. Louis encephalitis in 1933; observations on epidemiological features. Public Health Rep 73: 340353.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Durlach RA, Astarloa L, 1985. Saint Louis meningoencephalitis. Medicina (B Aires) 45: 467468.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Spinsanti L et al., 2003. St. Louis encephalitis in Argentina: the first case reported in the last seventeen years. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 271273.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Spinsanti LI et al., 2008. Human outbreak of St. Louis encephalitis detected in Argentina, 2005. J Clin Virol 42: 2733.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Seijo A et al., 2011. Outbreak of St. Louis encephalitis in the metropolitan Buenos Aires area [in Spanish]. Medicina (B Aires) 71: 211217.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Diaz LA, Flores FS, Quaglia A, Contigiani MS, 2012. Intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm. Front Physiol 3: 493.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Mitchell CJ, Francy DB, Monath TP, 1980. Arthropod vectors. Monath TP, ed. St. Louis Encephalitis. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 313–379.
  15. Flores FS, Nava S, Batallán G, Tauro LB, Contigiani MS, Diaz LA, Guglielmone AA, 2014. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild birds in north-central Argentina. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5: 715721.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Guglielmone AA, Mangold AJ, García MD, 1991. The life cycle of Amblyomma parvum Aragao, 1908 (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions. Exp Appl Acarol 13: 129136.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mitchell CJ, Monath TP, Sabattini MS, Cropp CB, Daffner JF, Calisher CH, Jakob WL, Christensen HA, 1985. Arbovirus investigations in Argentina, 1977–1980. II. Arthropod collections and virus isolations from Argentine mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34: 945955.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hurlbut HS, 1956. West Nile virus infection in arthropods. Am J Trop Med Hyg 5: 7685.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hurlbut HS, Rizk F, Taylor RM, Work TH, 1956. A study of the ecology of West Nile virus in Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg 5: 579620.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Blattner RJ, Heys FM; Technical Assistance of Margaret B. McDonald, 1944. Blood-sucking vectors of encephalitis: experimental transmission of St. Louis encephalitis (Hubbard strain) to white Swiss mice by the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis say. J Exp Med 79: 439454.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Abbassy MM, Osman M, Marzouk AS, 1993. West Nile virus (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) in experimentally infected argas ticks (Acari: Argasidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg 48: 726737.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Anderson JF, Main AJ, Andreadis TG, Wikel SK, Vossbrinck CR, 2003. Transstadial transfer of West Nile virus by three species of ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 40: 528533.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lawrie CH, Uzcategui NY, Gould EA, Nuttall PA, 2004. Ixodid and argasid tick species and West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 653657.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Formosinho P, Santos-Silva MM, 2006. Experimental infection of Hyalomma marginatum ticks with West Nile virus. Acta Virol 50: 175180.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Reisen WK, Brault AC, Martinez VM, Fang Y, Simmons K, Garcia S, Omi-Olsen E, Lane RS, 2007. Ability of transstadially infected Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) to transmit West Nile virus to song sparrows or western fence lizards. J Med Entomol 44: 320327.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kokonova MS, Borisevich SV, Grabarev PA, Bondarev VP, 2013. Experimental assessment of the possible significance of argasid ticks in preserving the natural foci of West Nile virus infection [in Russian]. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 2: 3335.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sonenshine DE, 1991. Biology of Ticks, 1st edition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  28. Labuda M, Nuttall PA, 2004. Tick-borne viruses. Parasitology 129: S221S245.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Steele GM, Nuttall PA, 1989. Difference in vector competence of two species of sympatric ticks, Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus for Dugbe virus (Nairovirus: Bunyaviridae). Virus Res 14: 7384.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Davies CR, Jones LD, Nuttall PA, 1986. Experimental studies on the transmission cycle of Thogoto virus, a candidate orthomyxovirus, in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 12561262.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Balashov JC, 1998. Ixodid Ticks—Parasites and Vectors of Diseases. Sankt-Peterburg, Russia: Nauka.
  32. Rehacek J, 1965. Development of animal viruses and rickettsiae in ticks and mites. Annu Rev Entomol 10: 124.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Chernesky MA, Mclean DM, 1969. Localization of Powassan virus in Dermacentor andersoni ticks by immunofluorescence. Can J Microbiol 15: 13991408.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Booth TF, Davies CR, Jones LD, Staunton D, Nuttall PA, 1989. Anatomical basis of Thogoto virus infection in BHK cell culture and in the ixodid tick vector, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. J Gen Virol 70: 10931104.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Booth TF, Steele GM, Marriott AC, Nuttall PA, 1991. Dissemination, replication, and trans-stadial persistence of Dugbe virus (Nairovirus, Bunyaviridae) in the tick vector Amblyomma variegatum. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45: 146157.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kaufman WR, Nuttall PA, 2004. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae): dynamics of Thogoto virus infection in female ticks during feeding on Guinea pigs. Exp Parasitol 104: 2025.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Nava S, Mangold AJ, Guglielmone AA, 2009. Seasonal distribution of larvae and nymphs of Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae). Vet Parasitol 166: 340342.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0134
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0134
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 14 Feb 2018
  • Accepted : 18 Jun 2018
  • Published online : 18 Mar 2019
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error