Volume 99, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In rural areas in Morocco, diagnosing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) can be challenging. We evaluated the accuracy of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) based on antigen detection, CL Detect Rapid Test (Inbios International Inc., Seattle, WA), in this setting. We consecutively recruited patients with new skin ulcers in nine primary health centers. We took a dental broach sample for the RDT and two other tissue samples by scraping the border and center of the lesion with a scalpel and smearing it on a slide. We duplicated each smear by pressing a clean slide against it and processed the slides by microscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) internal transcribed spacer 1, and kDNA minicircle PCR. In a subgroup with positive PCR, the species was identified using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and PCR-sequencing of genes. A participant with positive microscopy and/or PCR was considered a confirmed CL case. We computed sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the RDT compared with this reference standard (ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT02979002). Between December 2016 and July 2017, we included 219 patients, 50% of them were under 18 years old. Rapid diagnostic test Se was 68% [95% confidence interval (CI): 61–74], Sp 94% [95% CI: 91–97], positive predictive value 95% [95% CI: 92–98], and negative predictive value 64% [95% CI: 58–70]. Despite its low Se, this novel RDT is a useful addition to clinical management of CL in Morocco, especially in isolated localities. Rapid diagnostic test–positive lesions can be treated as CL; but when RDT negative, microscopy should be done in a second step. The Se of the RDT can probably be optimized by improving the sampling procedure.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 24 Jan 2018
  • Accepted : 29 Apr 2018
  • Published online : 09 Jul 2018

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