Volume 99, Issue 3_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Typhoid and paratyphoid fever remain endemic diseases in Thailand with wide variation in subnational incidence trends. We examined these trends alongside contextual factors to study potential interactions and guide control strategies for this disease. Culture-confirmed typhoid and paratyphoid fever data from 2003 to 2014 were collected from the Ministry of Public Health website. Contextual factor data were collected from various sources including World Health Organization/United Nations Children’s Fund Joint Monitoring Program, United Education Statistical World Bank database, World Bank, Development Research group, and global child mortality estimates published in the Lancet. Typhoid fever exhibited a declining trend with peak incidence reported in 2003 at 8.6 cases per 100,000 persons per year. Incidence dropped to three cases per 100,000 persons in 2014. The trend in paratyphoid fever remained stable with the peak incidence of 0.77 cases per 100,000 persons observed in 2009. Subnational variations of typhoid were seen throughout the study period with the highest incidence observed in the northwestern region of Thailand. Increases in female literacy, and access to improved water and sanitation were observed with decreases in poverty head count ratio and diarrheal mortality rate per 1,000 live births. Case fatality remained consistently low at 0.4% or less in all years with reported deaths. At the national level, typhoid fever incidence has shown a notable decline; however, incidence appears to have plateaued since 2007 with access to improved water supply and sanitation above 80%. Eliminating this disease will require strong disease prevention measures in conjunction with effective treatment interventions.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 17 Jan 2018
  • Accepted : 25 May 2018
  • Published online : 25 Jul 2018
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