Volume 99, Issue 3_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Typhoid fever, caused by serovar Typhi (. Typhi), is a diminishing public health problem in Vietnam, and this process may represent a prototype for typhoid elimination in Asia. Here, we review typhoid epidemiology in Vietnam over 20 years and assess the potential drivers associated with typhoid reduction. In the 1990s, multidrug resistant . Typhi were highly prevalent in a sentinel hospital in southern Vietnam. A national typhoid incidence rate of 14.7/100,000 population per year was estimated around the new millennium. The Vietnamese government recognized the public health issue of typhoid in the 1990s and initiated vaccine campaigns to protect the most vulnerable members of the population. At their peak, these campaigns immunized approximately 1,200,000 children in 35 provinces. Concurrently, Vietnam experienced unprecedented economic development from 1998 to 2014, with the gross national income per capita increasing from $360 to $1,890 over this period. More recent typhoid incidence data are not available, but surveillance suggests that the current disease burden is negligible. This trajectory can be considered a major public health success. However, a paucity of systematic data makes it difficult to disaggregate the roles of immunization and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions in typhoid reduction in Vietnam. Given the limitations of typhoid vaccines, we surmise the practical elimination of typhoid was largely driven by economic development and improvement in general population living standards. Better designed WASH intervention studies with clinical endpoints and systematic incidence data are essential to glean a greater understanding of contextual factors that impact typhoid incidence reduction.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 15 Jan 2018
  • Accepted : 05 May 2018
  • Published online : 25 Jul 2018

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