Volume 98, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Controlling and ultimately ending tuberculosis (TB) as a public health scourge will require a multifaceted and comprehensive approach involving the intensification of public health efforts, including scaling-up the delivery of current diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic tools. However, a critically important element in the effort to end TB is an accelerated biomedical research effort to address the many unanswered questions about the disease process itself and to develop improved and innovative countermeasures. An intensive effort toward these research goals will facilitate the achievement of the aspirational goal of ending TB.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Paulson T, 2013. Epidemiology: a mortal foe. Nature 502: S2S3.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. World Health Organization, 2017. Global Tuberculosis Report 2017. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
  3. World Health Organization, 2017. Moscow Declaration to End TB. First WHO Ministerial Conference to Ending TB in the Sustainable Development Era: A Multisectoral Response, Moscow, Russia, November 16–17, 2017.
  4. Fauci AS; NIAID Tuberculosis Working Group, 2008. Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Research agenda and recommendations for priority research. J Infect Dis 197: 14931498.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1981. Kaposi’s sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men—New York City and California. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 30: 305308.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1981. Pneumocystis pneumonia—Los Angeles. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 30: 250252.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Palmer S et al., 2003. New real-time reverse transcriptase-initiated PCR assay with single-copy sensitivity for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma. J Clin Microbiol 41: 45314536.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Marcus JL, Chao CR, Leyden WA, Xu L, Quesenberry CP Jr, Klein DB, Towner WJ, Horberg MA, Silverberg MJ, 2016. Narrowing the gap in life expectancy between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals with access to care. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 73: 3946.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/prep/index.html. Accessed December 2, 2017.
  10. Fauci AS, 2017. An HIV vaccine is essential for ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. JAMA 318: 15351536.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 2016. First New HIV Vaccine Efficacy Study in Seven Years Has Begun. Bethesda, MD: NIAID.
  12. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 2017. NIH and Partners Launch HIV Vaccine Efficacy Study. Bethesda, MD: NIAID.
  13. U.S. Agency for International Development, 2015. United States Government Global Tuberculosis Strategy 2015–2019. Washington, DC: USAID.
  14. World Health Organization, 2015. The End TB Strategy—Global Strategy and Targets for Tuberculosis Prevention, Care, and Control after 2015. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
  15. Flynn JL, Chan J, 2001. Tuberculosis: latency and reactivation. Infect Immun 69: 41954201.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Pawlowski A, Jansson M, Skold M, Rottenberg ME, Kallenius G, 2012. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection. PLoS Pathog 8: e1002464.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mendez-Samperio P, 2017. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV co-infected individuals: current status, challenges and opportunities for the future. Scand J Immunol 86: 7682.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Venturini E, Turkova A, Chiappini E, Galli L, de Martino M, Thorne C, 2014. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in children. BMC Infect Dis 14 (Suppl 1): S5.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. The Broad Institute, 2017. TB-ARC Project (Tuberculosis Antibiotic Resistance Catalog Project). Available at: https://www.broadinstitute.org/genome-sequencing-and-analysis/tb-arc-project-tuberculosis-antibiotic-resistance-catalog-project. Accessed December 4, 2017.
  20. World Health Organization, 2017. Antibacterial Agents in Clinical Development—An Analysis of the Antibacterial Clinical Development Pipeline, Including Tuberculosis. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
  21. Stop TB, Partnership, 2017. 2017 Global New TB Drug Pipeline. Available at: http://www.newtbdrugs.org/pipeline/clinical. Accessed December 2, 2017.
  22. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents, 2017. Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Available at: https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/4/adult-and-adolescent-opportunistic-infection/325/tb. Accessed December 5, 2017.
  23. International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers, 2017. TB Drug Accelerator Program. Available at: http://partnerships.ifpma.org/partnership/tb-drug-accelerator-program. Accessed December 2, 2017.
  24. Sizemore CF, Hafner R, Fauci AS, 2017. NIH Statement on World Tuberculosis Day. Bethesda, MD: NIAID.
  25. Stop TB Partnership Working Group on New TB Vaccines, 2017. TB Vaccine Pipeline. Available at: http://www.newtbvaccines.org/tb-vaccine-pipeline/. Accessed December 5, 2017.
  26. World Health Organization, 2016/2017. Global Investments in Tuberculosis Research and Development: Past, Present, and Future. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
  27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016. BCG Vaccine. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/prevention/bcg.htm. Accessed December 4, 2017.
  28. Brennan MJ, Thole J, 2012. Tuberculosis vaccines: a strategic blueprint for the next decade. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 92 (Suppl 1): S6S13.
    [Google Scholar]
  • Received : 21 Dec 2017
  • Accepted : 21 Dec 2017
  • Published online : 22 Jan 2018
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error