1921
Volume 98, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is phylogenetically separated into distinct lineages. Lineage 1 (L1) and lineage 2 (L2) encompass all WNV isolates associated with human and veterinary disease cases. Although L1 WNV is globally distributed, including North America, L2 WNV only recently emerged out of sub-Saharan Africa into Europe and Russia. The spread of L2 WNV throughout and beyond Europe depends, in part, on availability of competent vectors. The vector competence of mosquitoes within the genus for WNV is well established for L1 WNV but less extensively studied for L2 WNV. Assessing the vector competence of North American mosquitoes for L2 WNV will be critical for predicting the potential for L2 WNV emergence in North America. We address the vector competence of North American and for L2 WNV. Both mosquito species were highly competent for each of the L2 WNV strains assessed, but variation in infection, dissemination, and transmission was observed. An L2 WNV strain (NS10) isolated during the Greek outbreak in 2010 exhibited a reduced capacity to infect compared with other L2 WNV strains. In addition, a South African L2 WNV strain (SA89) displayed a significantly shorter extrinsic incubation period in compared with other L2 WNV strains. These results demonstrate that North American mosquito species are competent vectors of African and European L2 WNV and that emergence of L2 WNV is unlikely to be hindered by poor competence of North American vectors.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0935
2018-04-09
2019-11-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/98/6/tpmd170935.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0935&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Petersen LR, Brault AC, Nasci RS, , 2013. West Nile virus: review of the literature. JAMA 310: 308315. [Google Scholar]
  2. Pesko KN, Ebel GD, , 2012. West Nile virus population genetics and evolution. Infect Genet Evol 12: 181190. [Google Scholar]
  3. Venter M, 2009. Lineage 2 West Nile virus as cause of fatal neurologic disease in horses, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 877884. [Google Scholar]
  4. Venter M, Swanepoel R, , 2010. West Nile virus lineage 2 as a cause of zoonotic neurological disease in humans and horses in southern Africa. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 10: 659664. [Google Scholar]
  5. Jupp PG, , 2001. The ecology of West Nile virus in South Africa and the occurrence of outbreaks in humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci 951: 143152. [Google Scholar]
  6. Platonov AE, 2011. Genotyping of West Nile fever virus strains circulating in southern Russia as an epidemiological investigation method: principles and results. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 103 (Suppl 1): 2937. [Google Scholar]
  7. Platonov AE, Fedorova MV, Karan LS, Shopenskaya TA, Platonova OV, Zhuravlev VI, , 2008. Epidemiology of West Nile infection in Volgograd, Russia, in relation to climate change and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bionomics. Parasitol Res 103: 4553. [Google Scholar]
  8. Rizzoli A, 2015. The challenge of West Nile virus in Europe: knowledge gaps and research priorities. Euro Surveill 20: 21135. [Google Scholar]
  9. Bakonyi T, Ivanics E, Erdelyi K, Ursu K, Ferenczi E, Weissenbock H, Nowotny N, , 2006. Lineage 1 and 2 strains of encephalitic West Nile virus, central Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 618623. [Google Scholar]
  10. Papa A, Xanthopoulou K, Gewehr S, Mourelatos S, , 2011. Detection of West Nile virus lineage 2 in mosquitoes during a human outbreak in Greece. Clin Microbiol Infect 17: 11761180. [Google Scholar]
  11. Wodak E, Richter S, Bagó Z, Revilla-Fernández S, Weissenböck H, Nowotny N, Winter P, , 2011. Detection and molecular analysis of West Nile virus infections in birds of prey in the eastern part of Austria in 2008 and 2009. Vet Microbiol 149: 358366. [Google Scholar]
  12. Lustig Y, Hindiyeh M, Orshan L, Weiss L, Koren R, Katz-Likvornik S, Zadka H, Glatman-Freedman A, Mendelson E, Shulman LM, , 2016. Mosquito surveillance for 15 years reveals high genetic diversity among West Nile viruses in Israel. J Infect Dis 213: 11071114. [Google Scholar]
  13. Danis K, 2011. Outbreak of West Nile virus infection in Greece, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 18681872. [Google Scholar]
  14. Papa A, 2010. Ongoing outbreak of West Nile virus infections in humans in Greece, July–August 2010. Euro Surveill 15: 19644. [Google Scholar]
  15. Papa A, , 2012. West Nile virus infections in Greece: an update. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 10: 743750. [Google Scholar]
  16. Pervanidou D, 2014. West Nile virus outbreak in humans, Greece, 2012: third consecutive year of local transmission. Euro Surveill 19: 20758. [Google Scholar]
  17. Papa A, Papadopoulou E, Kalaitzopoulou S, Tsioka K, Mourelatos S, , 2014. Detection of West Nile virus and insect-specific flavivirus RNA in Culex mosquitoes, central Macedonia, Greece. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 108: 555559. [Google Scholar]
  18. Popović N, Milošević B, Urošević A, Poluga J, Lavadinović L, Nedelijković J, Jevtović D, Dulović O, , 2013. Outbreak of West Nile virus infection among humans in Serbia, August to October 2012. Euro Surveill 18: 20613. [Google Scholar]
  19. Magurano F, 2012. Circulation of West Nile virus lineage 1 and 2 during an outbreak in Italy. Clin Microbiol Infect 18: E545E547. [Google Scholar]
  20. Turell MJ, Dohm DJ, Sardelis MR, O’guinn ML, Andreadis TG, Blow JA, , 2005. An update on the potential of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus. J Med Entomol 42: 5762. [Google Scholar]
  21. Andreadis TG, , 2012. The contribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes to transmission and persistence of West Nile virus in North America. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 28: 137151. [Google Scholar]
  22. Hubalek Z, Halouzka J, , 1999. West Nile fever–a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 5: 643650. [Google Scholar]
  23. Fyodorova MV, Savage HM, Lopatina JV, Bulgakova TA, Ivanitsky AV, Platonova OV, Platonov AE, , 2006. Evaluation of potential West Nile virus vectors in Volgograd region, Russia, 2003 (Diptera: Culicidae): species composition, bloodmeal host utilization, and virus infection rates of mosquitoes. J Med Entomol 43: 552563. [Google Scholar]
  24. Higgs S, Snow K, Gould EA, , 2004. The potential for West Nile virus to establish outside of its natural range: a consideration of potential mosquito vectors in the United Kingdom. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98: 8287. [Google Scholar]
  25. Brustolin M, 2016. Culex pipiens and Stegomyia albopicta (Aedes albopictus) populations as vectors for lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus in Europe. Med Vet Entomol 30: 166173. [Google Scholar]
  26. Fros JJ, Geertsema C, Vogels CB, Roosjen PP, Failloux A-B, Vlak JM, Koenraadt CJ, Takken W, Pijlman GP, , 2015. West Nile virus: high transmission rate in north-western European mosquitoes indicates its epidemic potential and warrants increased surveillance. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0003956. [Google Scholar]
  27. Motayo BO, Onoja BA, Faneye AO, Adeniji JA, , 2016. Seasonal abundance and molecular identification of West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipens and Culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) in Abeokuta, south-west, Nigeria. Afr Health Sci 16: 135140. [Google Scholar]
  28. Mutebi J-P, Crabtree MB, Kading RC, Powers AM, Lutwama JJ, Miller BR, , 2012. Mosquitoes of western Uganda. J Med Entomol 49: 12891306. [Google Scholar]
  29. Muturi EJ, Muriu S, Shililu J, Mwangangi JM, Jacob BG, Mbogo C, Githure J, Novak RJ, , 2008. Blood-feeding patterns of Culex quinquefasciatus and other culicines and implications for disease transmission in Mwea rice scheme, Kenya. Parasitol Res 102: 1329. [Google Scholar]
  30. Mossel EC, Crabtree MB, Mutebi J-P, Lutwama JJ, Borland EM, Powers AM, Miller BR, , 2017. Arboviruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in Uganda, 2008–2012. J Med Entomol 54: 14031409. [Google Scholar]
  31. Papa A, Politis C, Tsoukala A, Eglezou A, Bakaloudi V, Hatzitaki M, Tsergouli K, , 2012. West Nile virus lineage 2 from blood donor, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 688689. [Google Scholar]
  32. Papa A, Bakonyi T, Xanthopoulou K, Vázquez A, Tenorio A, Nowotny N, , 2011. Genetic characterization of West Nile virus lineage 2, Greece, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 920922. [Google Scholar]
  33. Brault AC, Langevin SA, Bowen RA, Panella NA, Biggerstaff BJ, Miller BR, Komar N, , 2004. Differential virulence of West Nile strains for American crows. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 21612168. [Google Scholar]
  34. Moudy RM, Meola MA, Morin L-LL, Ebel GD, Kramer LD, , 2007. A newly emergent genotype of West Nile virus is transmitted earlier and more efficiently by Culex mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 365370. [Google Scholar]
  35. Kilpatrick AM, Fonseca DM, Ebel GD, Reddy MR, Kramer LD, , 2010. Spatial and temporal variation in vector competence of Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 607613. [Google Scholar]
  36. Kilpatrick AM, Meola MA, Moudy RM, Kramer LD, , 2008. Temperature, viral genetics, and the transmission of West Nile virus by Culex pipiens mosquitoes. PLoS Pathog 4: e1000092. [Google Scholar]
  37. Maharaj PD, Bolling BG, Anishchenko M, Reisen WK, Brault AC, , 2014. Genetic determinants of differential oral infection phenotypes of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in Culex spp. mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91: 10661072. [Google Scholar]
  38. Crockett RK, 2012. Culex flavivirus and West Nile virus in Culex quinquefasciatus populations in the southeastern United States. J Med Entomol 49: 165174. [Google Scholar]
  39. Kent RJ, Crabtree MB, Miller BR, , 2010. Transmission of West Nile virus by Culex quinquefasciatus say infected with Culex flavivirus Izabal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e671. [Google Scholar]
  40. Newman CM, Krebs BL, Anderson TK, Hamer GL, Ruiz MO, Brawn JD, Brown WM, Kitron UD, Goldberg TL, , 2017. Culex flavivirus during West Nile virus epidemic and interepidemic years in Chicago, United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 17: 567575. [Google Scholar]
  41. Kothera L, Godsey M, Mutebi J-P, Savage HM, , 2010. A comparison of aboveground and belowground populations of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes in Chicago, Illinois, and New York City, New York, using microsatellites. J Med Entomol 47: 805813. [Google Scholar]
  42. Miller BR, Mitchell CJ, Ballinger ME, , 1989. Replication, tissue tropisms and transmission of yellow fever virus in Aedes albopictus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83: 252255. [Google Scholar]
  43. Smith JL, Fonseca DM, , 2004. Rapid assays for identification of members of the Culex (Culex) pipiens complex, their hybrids, and other sibling species (diptera: Culicidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 339345. [Google Scholar]
  44. Langevin SA, 2014. Host competence and helicase activity differences exhibited by West Nile viral variants expressing NS3-249 amino acid polymorphisms. PLoS One 9: e100802. [Google Scholar]
  45. Brault AC, Huang CY-H, Langevin SA, Kinney RM, Bowen RA, Ramey WN, Panella NA, Holmes EC, Powers AM, Miller BR, , 2007. A single positively selected West Nile viral mutation confers increased virogenesis in American crows. Nat Genet 39: 11621166. [Google Scholar]
  46. Lim SM, Brault AC, van Amerongen G, Bosco-Lauth AM, Romo H, Sewbalaksing VD, Bowen RA, Osterhaus A, Koraka P, Martina B, , 2015. Susceptibility of carrion crows to experimental infection with lineage 1 and 2 West Nile viruses. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 13571365. [Google Scholar]
  47. Lanciotti RS, 2000. Rapid detection of West Nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 38: 40664071. [Google Scholar]
  48. Julian KG, Eidson M, Kipp AM, Weiss E, Petersen LR, Miller JR, Hinten SR, Marfin AA, , 2002. Early season crow mortality as a sentinel for West Nile virus disease in humans, northeastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2: 145155. [Google Scholar]
  49. Guptill SC, Julian KG, Campbell GL, Price SD, Marfin AA, , 2003. Early-season avian deaths from West Nile virus as warnings of human infection. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 483484. [Google Scholar]
  50. Mostashari F, Kulldorff M, Hartman JJ, Miller JR, Kulasekera V, , 2003. Dead bird clusters as an early warning system for West Nile virus activity. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 641646. [Google Scholar]
  51. Fall G, Faye M, Weidmann M, Kaiser M, Dupressoir A, Ndiaye EH, Ba Y, Diallo M, Faye O, Sall AA, , 2016. Real-time RT-PCR assays for detection and genotyping of West Nile virus lineages circulating in Africa. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 16: 781789. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0935
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0935
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 01 Dec 2017
  • Accepted : 24 Feb 2018
  • Published online : 09 Apr 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error