Volume 99, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In August 2017, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases convened a meeting, entitled “Understanding the Liver-Stage Biology of Malaria Parasites to Enable and Accelerate the Development of a Highly Efficacious Vaccine,” to discuss the needs and strategies to develop a highly efficacious, whole organism–based vaccine targeting the liver stage of malaria parasites. It was concluded that attenuated sporozoite platforms have proven to be promising approaches, and that late-arresting sporozoites could potentially offer greater vaccine performance than early-arresting sporozoites against malaria. New knowledge and emerging technologies have made the development of late-arresting sporozoites feasible. Highly integrated approaches involving liver-stage research, “omics” studies, and cutting-edge genetic editing technologies, combined with in vitro culture systems or unique animal models, are needed to accelerate the discovery of candidates for a late-arresting, genetically attenuated parasite vaccine.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 17 Nov 2017
  • Accepted : 18 Jun 2018
  • Published online : 20 Aug 2018
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