Volume 98, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Although numerous viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, four have caused the most human suffering over the centuries and continuing today. These are the viruses causing yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Africa is clearly the ancestral home of yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika viruses and likely the dengue virus. Several species of mosquitoes, primarily in the genus , have been transmitting these viruses and their direct ancestors among African primates for millennia allowing for coadaptation among viruses, mosquitoes, and primates. One African primate (humans) and one African mosquito () have escaped Africa and spread around the world. Thus it is not surprising that this native African mosquito is the most efficient vector of these native African viruses to this native African primate. This makes it likely that when the next disease-causing virus comes out of Africa, will be the major vector to humans.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 07 Nov 2017
  • Accepted : 05 Jan 2018
  • Published online : 19 Mar 2018

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