Volume 98, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



To improve malaria surveillance and achieve elimination, the Zambian National Malaria Elimination Program implemented a reactive test-and-treat program in Southern Province in 2013 in which individuals with rapid diagnostic test (RDT)–confirmed malaria are followed-up at their home within 1 week of diagnosis. Individuals present at the index case household and those residing within 140 m of the index case are tested with an RDT and treated with artemether–lumefantrine if positive. This study evaluated the efficiency of this reactive test-and-treat strategy by characterizing infected individuals missed by the RDT and the current screening radius. The radius was expanded to 250 m, and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test was performed on dried blood spot specimens. From January 2015 through March 2016, 145 index cases were identified at health centers and health posts. A total of 3,333 individuals residing in 525 households were screened. Excluding index cases, the parasite prevalence was 1.1% by RDT (33 positives of 3,016 participants) and 2.4% by qPCR (73 positives of 3,016 participants). Of the qPCR-positive cases, 62% of 73 individuals tested negative by RDT. Approximately half of the infected individuals resided within the index case household (58% of RDT-positive individuals and 48% of qPCR-positive individuals). The low sensitivity of the RDT and the high proportion of secondary cases within the index case household decreased the efficiency of this reactive test-and-treat strategy. Reactive focal drug administration in index case households would be a more efficient approach to treating infected individuals associated with a symptomatic case.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 06 Nov 2017
  • Accepted : 14 Jan 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error