1921
Volume 99, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Packaged water, particularly bagged sachet water, has become an important drinking water source in West Africa as local governments struggle to provide safe drinking water supplies. In Ghana, sachet water has become an important primary water source in urban centers, and a growing literature has explored various dimensions of this industry, including product quality. There is very little data on sachet water quality outside of large urban centers, where smaller markets often mean less producer competition and less government regulation. This study analyzes the microbiological quality of sachet water alongside samples of other common water sources at point-of-collection (POC) and point-of-use (POU) in 42 rural, peri-urban, and small-town Ghanaian communities using the IDEXX Colilert 18 (Westbrook, ME). Levels of coliform bacteria and detected in sachet water samples were statistically and significantly lower than levels detected in all other water sources at POU, including public taps and standpipes, and statistically similar or significantly lower at POC. In diverse waterscapes where households regularly patch together their water supply from different sources, sachet water appears to be an evolving alternative for safe drinking water despite many caveats, including higher unit costs and limited opportunities to recycle the plastic packaging.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0804
2018-06-11
2019-07-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/99/2/tpmd170804.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0804&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Vedachalam S, MacDonald LH, Omoluabi E, OlaOlorun F, Otupiri E, Schwab KJ, , 2017. The role of packaged water in meeting global targets on improved water access. J Water Sanit Hyg Dev 7: 369377. [Google Scholar]
  2. Williams AR, Bain RES, Fisher MB, Cronk R, Kelly ER, Bartram J, , 2015. A systematic review and meta-analysis of fecal contamination and inadequate treatment of packaged water. PLoS One 10: e0140899. [Google Scholar]
  3. Stoler J, , 2017. From curiosity to commodity: a review of the evolution of sachet drinking water in West Africa. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Water 4: e1206. [Google Scholar]
  4. WHO/UNICEF, 2017. Safely Managed Drinking Water—Thematic Report on Drinking Water 2017. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  5. Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), Ghana Health Service (GHS), ICF International, 2015. Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 2014. Rockville, MD: GSS, GHS, and ICF International.
  6. White GF, Bradley DJ, White AU, , 1972. Drawers of Water: Domestic Water Use in East Africa. London, United Kingdom: University of Chicago Press. Available at: https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19722703575. Accessed July 20, 2017.
  7. Thompson J, Porras IT, Tumwine JK, Mujwahuzi MR, Katui-Katua M, Johnstone N, Wood L, , 2001. Drawers of Water II. London, United Kingdom: International Institute for Environment and Development.
  8. Guzman JC, Brown D, Khatiwada L, , 2016. Millennium Challenge Corporation Impact Evaluation: Water and Sanitation Component of the Ghana Compact. Final Report. Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame Initiative for Global Development.
  9. Wright J, Dzodzomenyo M, Wardrop N, Johnston R, Hill A, Aryeetey G, Adanu R, , 2016. Effects of sachet water consumption on exposure to microbe-contaminated drinking water: household survey evidence from Ghana. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13: 303. [Google Scholar]
  10. Oyelude EO, Ahenkorah S, , 2012. Quality of sachet water and bottled water in Bolgatanga Municipality of Ghana. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol 4: 10941098. [Google Scholar]
  11. Stoler J, Ahmed H, Asantewa Frimpong L, Bello M, , 2015. Presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in coliform-free sachet drinking water in Ghana. Food Control 55: 242247. [Google Scholar]
  12. Tagoe D, Nyarko H, Arthur S, Birikorang E, , 2011. A study of antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolates in sachet drinking water sold in the cape coast metropolis of Ghana. Res J Microbiol 6: 153. [Google Scholar]
  13. Stoler J, Tutu RA, Ahmed H, Asantewa Frimpong L, Bello M, , 2015. Sachet water quality and brand reputation in two low-income urban communities in Greater Accra, Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 272278. [Google Scholar]
  14. MacArthur RL, Darkwa S, , 2013. Production and vendor practices that compromise the quality of “sachet” water in the central region, Ghana. Int J Sci Technol Soc 1: 6470. [Google Scholar]
  15. Stoler J, Fink G, Weeks JR, Otoo RA, Ampofo JA, Hill AG, , 2012. When urban taps run dry: sachet water consumption and health effects in low income neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana. Health Place 18: 250262. [Google Scholar]
  16. Wright J, Dzodzomenyo M, Fink G, Wardrop NA, Aryeetey GC, Adanu RM, Hill AG, , 2016. Subsidized sachet water to reduce diarrheal disease in young children: a feasibility study in Accra, Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 95: 239246. [Google Scholar]
  17. Wright J, Gundry S, Conroy R, , 2004. Household drinking water in developing countries: a systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point-of-use. Trop Med Int Health 9: 106117. [Google Scholar]
  18. NORC (National Opinion Research Center), 2011. Impact Evaluation of Water Supply Activity: Baseline Report. MiDA Contract 4101106-01. Bethesda, MD: NORC, University of Chicago. Available at: https://data.mcc.gov/evaluations/index.php/catalog/112/download/493.
  19. StataCorp, 2015. Stata Statistical Software: Release 14. College Station, TX: StataCorp LLC.
  20. Jepson W, 2017. Advancing human capabilities for water security: a relational approach. Water Secur 1 (Suppl C): 4652. [Google Scholar]
  21. Addo MG, Woods CA, Andoh LA, Obiri-Danso K, , 2016. Effect of varying storage temperatures on the microbiological quality of street sold water in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. Res J Microbiol 11: 5663. [Google Scholar]
  22. Duwiejuah A, Cobbina S, Akrong M, , 2013. Effect of storage on the quality of sachet-vended water in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana. J Environ Prot (Irvine Calif) 4: 629637. [Google Scholar]
  23. Kumpel E, Cock-Esteb A, Duret M, de Waal D, Khush R, , 2017. Seasonal variation in drinking and domestic water sources and quality in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 96: 437445. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0804
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0804
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Tables

  • Received : 12 Oct 2017
  • Accepted : 28 Feb 2018
  • Published online : 11 Jun 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error