Volume 98, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We assessed the ex vivo/in vitro sensitivity of 54 Malian isolates to artemisinin for the monitoring of drug resistance in this area. The artemisinin sensitivity of parasites was evaluated using 1) the ex vivo and in vitro parasite recrudescence detection after treatment of the ring stage with 1–200 nM artemisinin for 48 hours and 2) the in vitro parasite recrudescence kinetics assay over 7 days after 6-hour treatment of the ring stage with 700 nM dihydroartemisinin (DHA). In addition, as recommended by the World Health Organization for artemisinin resistance characterization, the ring-stage survival assay (RSA) was performed and the parasite isolates were sequenced at the kelch 13 propeller locus. No clinical and molecular evidence of artemisinin resistance was observed. However, these isolates present different phenotypic profiles in response to artemisinin treatments. Despite all RSA values less than 1.5%, six out of 46 (13.0%) isolates tested ex vivo and four out of six (66.7%) isolates tested in vitro were able to multiply after 48-hour treatments with 100 nM artemisinin. Moreover, five out of eight isolates tested showed faster parasite recovery after DHA treatment in kinetic assays. The presence of such phenotypes needs to be taken into account in the assessment of the efficacy of artemisinins in Mali. The assays presented here appear as valuable tools for the monitoring of artemisinin sensitivity in the field and thus could help to evaluate the risk of emergence of artemisinin resistance in Africa.


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Supplemental Figure and Table

  • Received : 11 Oct 2017
  • Accepted : 25 Dec 2017

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