Volume 98, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is an important but under-recognized cause of disease in the tropics. Although first described over a century ago as a septicemic illness associated with morphine addicts in Rangoon, Burma, there is little information regarding the incidence of melioidosis in present-day Myanmar. To address this issue, we used two recently developed and validated serological assays to detect –specific antibodies in 124 serum samples obtained from febrile patients in the delta region of Myanmar. Using cutoff values derived from culture-confirmed melioidosis cases in neighboring Thailand, 3.2% of the samples exhibited reactivity profiles consistent with active infections. Collectively, these findings indicate that melioidosis likely represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Myanmar and support the need for further studies to assess the true burden of disease in this country.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Limmathurotsakul D, Kanoksil M, Wuthiekanun V, Kitphati R, deStavola B, Day NP, Peacock SJ, , 2013. Activities of daily living associated with acquisition of melioidosis in northeast Thailand: a matched case-control study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2072. [Google Scholar]
  2. Currie BJ, Jacups SP, Cheng AC, Fisher DA, Anstey NM, Huffam SE, Krause VL, , 2004. Melioidosis epidemiology and risk factors from a prospective whole-population study in northern Australia. Trop Med Int Health 9: 11671174. [Google Scholar]
  3. Limmathurotsakul D, 2016. Predicted global distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei and burden of melioidosis. Nat Microbiol 1: 15008. [Google Scholar]
  4. Limmathurotsakul D, Wongratanacheewin S, Teerawattanasook N, Wongsuvan G, Chaisuksant S, Chetchotisakd P, Chaowagul W, Day NP, Peacock SJ, , 2010. Increasing incidence of human melioidosis in northeast Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 11131117. [Google Scholar]
  5. Hoffmaster AR, 2015. Melioidosis diagnostic workshop, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 21, doi:10.3201/eid2102.141045. [Google Scholar]
  6. Whitmore A, Krishnaswami CS, , 1912. A hitherto undescribed infective disease in Rangoon. Ind Med Gaz 47: 262267. [Google Scholar]
  7. Krishnaswami CS, , 1917. Morphia injectors septicaemia. Ind Med Gaz 52: 296299. [Google Scholar]
  8. Stanton AT, Fletcher W, , 1921. Melioidosis, a New Disease of the Tropics. Weltevreden, Batavia, (Dutch East Indies): Far Eastern Association of Tropical Medicine. Transactions of the Fourth Congress. Vol. 2, 196–198.
  9. Wuthiekanun V, Langa S, Swaddiwudhipong W, Jedsadapanpong W, Kaengnet Y, Chierakul W, Day NP, Peacock SJ, , 2006. Short report: melioidosis in Myanmar: forgotten but not gone? Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 945946. [Google Scholar]
  10. Aung MK, Mar TT, , 2008. Re-emergence of melioidosis in Myanmar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102 (Suppl 1): S10S11. [Google Scholar]
  11. Chu CS, Winearls S, Ling C, Torchinsky MB, Phyo AP, Haohankunnathum W, Turner P, Wuthiekanun V, Nosten F, , 2014. Two fatal cases of melioidosis on the Thai-Myanmar border. F1000 Res 3: 4. [Google Scholar]
  12. Suttisunhakul V, Wuthiekanun V, Brett PJ, Khusmith S, Day NP, Burtnick MN, Limmathurotsakul D, Chantratita N, , 2016. Development of rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei. J Clin Microbiol 54: 12591268. [Google Scholar]
  13. Pumpuang A, Dunachie SJ, Phokrai P, Jenjaroen K, Sintiprungrat K, Boonsilp S, Brett PJ, Burtnick MN, Chantratita N, , 2017. Comparison of O-polysaccharide and hemolysin co-regulated protein as target antigens for serodiagnosis of melioidosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11: e0005499. [Google Scholar]
  14. Currie BJ, , 2015. Melioidosis: evolving concepts in epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 36: 111125. [Google Scholar]
  15. Burtnick MN, Brett PJ, , 2013. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei cluster 1 type VI secretion system gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc. PLoS One 8: e76767. [Google Scholar]
  16. Burtnick MN, 2011. The cluster 1 type VI secretion system is a major virulence determinant in Burkholderia pseudomallei. Infect Immun 79: 15121525. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 09 Oct 2017
  • Accepted : 01 Feb 2018
  • Published online : 19 Mar 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error