Volume 98, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



is a leading cause of diarrhea among Kenyan infants. Ceramic water filters (CWFs) are used for household water treatment. We assessed the impact of CWFs on diarrhea, cryptosporidiosis prevention, and water quality in rural western Kenya. A randomized, controlled intervention trial was conducted in 240 households with infants 4–10 months old. Twenty-six weekly household surveys assessed infant diarrhea and health facility visits. Stool specimens from infants with diarrhea were examined for . Source water, filtered water, and filter retentate were tested for and/or microbial indicators. To estimate the effect of CWFs on health outcomes, logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were performed; odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Households reported using surface water (36%), public taps (29%), or rainwater (17%) as their primary drinking water sources, with no differences in treatment groups. Intervention households reported less diarrhea (7.6% versus 8.9%; OR: 0.86 [0.64–1.16]) and significantly fewer health facility visits for diarrhea (1.0% versus 1.9%; OR: 0.50 [0.30–0.83]). In total, 15% of intervention and 12% of control stools yielded ( = 0.26). was detected in 93% of source water samples; 71% of filtered water samples met World Health Organization recommendations of < 1 /100 mL. was not detected in source water and was detected in just 2% of filter rinses following passage of large volumes of source water. Water quality was improved among CWF users; however, the short study duration and small sample size limited our ability to observe reductions in cryptosporidiosis.


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  • Received : 19 Sep 2017
  • Accepted : 07 Feb 2018

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