Volume 98, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



is a soil-transmitted helminth infecting human populations globally. Human cases caused by and have also been reported. Molecular identifications of species infecting human populations in Lao PDR and Myanmar are lacking. Here, we explored molecular data obtained from eggs recovered from human fecal samples from these countries and compared these with new and existing data from Thailand. Nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S and ITS2) sequences were amplified from eggs and sequenced. Forty-one samples showed 99–100% similarity in their 18S sequences to published sequences of and one sample showed 99% similarity to a sequence of . Similarly, 41 samples showed 92–100% similarity in their ITS2 sequences to published sequences of and one sample showed 94–97% similarity to sequences of . This study is the first molecular confirmation of human infection with in northeast Thailand and the first molecular confirmation of the species of infecting humans in Lao PDR and Myanmar.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Hotez PJ, Fenwick A, Savioli L, Molyneux DH, , 2009. Rescuing the bottom billion through control of neglected tropical diseases. Lancet 373: 15701575. [Google Scholar]
  2. Dunn JC, Turner HC, Tun A, Anderson RM, , 2016. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in southeast Asia: a systematic review. Parasit Vectors 27: 931. [Google Scholar]
  3. Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, Geiger SM, Loukas A, Diemert D, Hotez PJ, , 2006. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet 367: 15211532. [Google Scholar]
  4. Liu GH, Gasser RB, Nejsum P, Wang Y, Chen Q, Song HQ, Zhu XQ, , 2013. Mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA evidence supports the existence of a new Trichuris species in the endangered françois’ leaf-monkey. PLoS One 8: e66249. [Google Scholar]
  5. Márquez-Navarro A, García-Bracamontes G, Alvarez-Fernández BE, Ávila-Caballero LP, Santos-Aranda I, Díaz-Chiguer DL, Sánchez-Manzano RM, Rodríguez-Bataz E, Nogueda-Torres B, , 2012. Trichuris vulpis (Froelich, 1789) infection in a child: a case report. Korean J Parasitol 50: 6971. [Google Scholar]
  6. Kradin RL, Badizadegan K, Auluck P, Korzenik J, Lauwers GY, , 2006. Iatrogenic Trichuris suis in a patient with Crohn disease. Arch Pathol Lab Med 130: 718720. [Google Scholar]
  7. Liu GH, Zhou W, Nisbet AJ, Xu MJ, Zhou DH, Zhao GH, Wang SK, Song HQ, Lin RQ, Zhu XQ, , 2014. Characterization of Trichuris trichiura from humans and T. suis from pigs in China using internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. J Helminthol 88: 6468. [Google Scholar]
  8. Stephenson LS, Holland CV, Cooper ES, , 2000. The public health significance of Trichuris trichiura. Parasitology 121: S73S95. [Google Scholar]
  9. Lenk EJ, Redekop WK, Luyendijk M, Rijnsburger AJ, Severens JL, , 2016. Productivity loss related to neglected tropical diseases eligible for preventive chemotherapy: a systematic literature review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004397. [Google Scholar]
  10. de Silva NR, Brooker S, Hotez PJ, Montresor A, Engels D, Savioli L, , 2003. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: updating the global picture. Trends Parasitol 19: 547551. [Google Scholar]
  11. Azira NMS, Zeehaida M, , 2012. Severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia secondary to Trichuris dysentery syndrome - a case report. Trop Biomed 29: 626631. [Google Scholar]
  12. Laymanivong S, Hangvanthong B, Keokhamphavanh B, Phommasansak M, Phinmaland B, Sanpool O, Maleewong W, Intapan PM, , 2014. Current status of human hookworm infections, ascariasis, trichuriasis, schistosomiasis mekongi and other trematodiases in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 667669. [Google Scholar]
  13. Montresor A, Zin TT, Padmasiri E, Allen H, Savioli L, , 2004. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Myanmar and approximate costs for countrywide control. Trop Med Int Health 9: 10121015. [Google Scholar]
  14. Yong TS, 2014. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006–2011). Korean J Parasitol 52: 661666. [Google Scholar]
  15. Liabsuetrakul T, 2009. Epidemiology and the effect of treatment of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in pregnant women in southern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40: 211222. [Google Scholar]
  16. Ok KS, Kim YS, Song JH, Lee JH, Ryu SH, Lee JH, Moon JS, Whang DH, Lee HK, , 2009. Trichuris trichiura infection diagnosed by colonoscopy: case reports and review of literature. Korean J Parasitol 47: 275280. [Google Scholar]
  17. Ghai RR, Simons ND, Chapman CA, Omeja PA, Davies TJ, Ting N, Goldberg TL, , 2014. Hidden population structure and cross-species transmission of whipworms (Trichuris sp.) in humans and non-human primates in Uganda. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3256. [Google Scholar]
  18. Cutillas C, de Rojas M, Ariza C, Ubeda JM, Guevara D, , 2007. Molecular identification of Trichuris vulpis and Trichuris suis isolated from different hosts. Parasitol Res 100: 383389. [Google Scholar]
  19. Dolezalova J, 2015. How many species of whipworms do we share? Whipworms from man and other primates form two phylogenetic lineages. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 3: 62. [Google Scholar]
  20. Meekums H, Hawash MB, Sparks AM, Oviedo Y, Sandoval C, Chico ME, Stothard JR, Cooper PJ, Nejsum P, Betson M, , 2015. A genetic analysis of Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis from Ecuador. Parasit Vectors 19: 168. [Google Scholar]
  21. Hall TA, , 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41: 9598. [Google Scholar]
  22. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S, , 2013. MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30: 27252729. [Google Scholar]
  23. Cutillas C, Callejón R, de Rojas M, Tewes B, Ubeda JM, Ariza C, Guevara DC, , 2009. Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura are different nematode species. Acta Trop 111: 299307. [Google Scholar]
  24. Guardone L, Deplazes P, Macchioni F, Magi M, Mathis A, , 2013. Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Trichuridae nematodes of carnivores and small mammals. Vet Parasitol 197: 364369. [Google Scholar]
  25. Callejón R, Nadler S, De Rojas M, Zurita A, Petrášová J, Cutillas C, , 2013. Molecular characterization and phylogeny of whipworm nematodes inferred from DNA sequences of cox1 mtDNA and 18S rDNA. Parasitol Res 112: 39333949. [Google Scholar]
  26. George S, 2016. The molecular speciation of soil-transmitted helminth eggs collected from school children across six endemic countries. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 657663. [Google Scholar]
  27. Areekul P, Putaporntip C, Pattanawong U, Sitthicharoenchai P, Jongwutiwes S, , 2010. Trichuris vulpis and T. trichiura infections among schoolchildren of a rural community in northwestern Thailand: the possible role of dogs in disease transmission. Asian Biomed 4: 4960. [Google Scholar]
  28. Beer RJ, , 1976. The relationship between Trichuris trichiura (Linnaeus 1758) of man and Trichuris suis (Schrank 1788) of the pig. Res Vet Sci 20: 4754. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 16 Aug 2017
  • Accepted : 03 Oct 2017
  • Published online : 20 Nov 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error