Volume 99, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Acute conjunctivitis follows a seasonal pattern. Although its clinical course is typically self-limited, conjunctivitis epidemics incur a substantial economic burden because of missed school and work days. This study investigated seasonal and temporal trends of childhood conjunctivitis in the entire country of Burkina Faso from 2013 to 2016, using routine monthly surveillance from 2,444 government health facilities. A total of 783,314 cases were reported over the 4-year period. Conjunctivitis followed a seasonal pattern throughout the country, with a peak in April. A nationwide conjunctivitis outbreak with a peak in September 2016 was noted ( < 0.001), with an excess number of cases first detected in June 2016. Nationwide passive surveillance was able to detect an epidemic 3 months before its peak, which may aide in allocation of resources for containment and mitigation of transmission in future outbreaks.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Deiner MS, Lietman TM, McLeod SD, Chodosh J, Porco TC, , 2016. Surveillance tools emerging from search engines and social media data for determining eye disease patterns. JAMA Ophthalmol 134: 10241027. [Google Scholar]
  2. Ramirez DA, Porco TC, Lietman TM, Keenan JD, , 2017. The epidemiology of conjunctivitis in United States emergency departments: a population-based study. JAMA Ophthalmol 135: 11191121. [Google Scholar]
  3. Deiner MS, McLeod SD, Chodosh J, Oldenburg CE, Fathy CA, Lietman TM, Porco TC, , 2018. Clinical age-specific seasonal conjunctivitis patterns and their online detection in twitter, blog, forum, and comment social media posts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 59: 910911. [Google Scholar]
  4. Zhang L, Zhao N, Sha J, Wang C, Jin X, Amer S, Liu S, , 2016. Virology and epidemiology analyses of global adenovirus-associated conjunctivitis outbreaks, 1953–2013. Epidemiol Infect 144: 16611672. [Google Scholar]
  5. Patriarca PA, Onorato IM, Sklar VEF, Schonberger LB, Kaminski RM, Hatch MH, Morens DM, Forster RK, , 1983. Acute hemorrhagic conjuctivitis: investigation of a large-scale community outbreak in Dade County, Florida. JAMA 249: 12831289. [Google Scholar]
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2013. Adenovirus-associated epidemic keratoconjunctivitis outbreaks—four states, 2008–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62: 637641. [Google Scholar]
  7. Dawson CR, Whitcher JP, Schmidt NJ, , 1974. Editorial: acute hemmorhagic conjunctivitis. JAMA 230: 727728. [Google Scholar]
  8. Minami K, Otatsume S, Mingle JA, Afoakwa SN, Quarcoopome CO, Konno K, Uchida Y, Kurahashi H, Kono R, , 1981. Seroepidemiologic studies of acute hemmorrhagic conjunctivitis virus (enterovirus type 70) in West Africa: I. Studies with human sera from Ghana collected eight years after the first outbreak. Am J Epidemiol 114: 267273. [Google Scholar]
  9. Chatterjee S, Quarcoopome CO, Apenteng A, , 1970. Unusual type of epidemic conjunctivitis. Brit J Opthal 54: 628630. [Google Scholar]
  10. Medina NH, Haro-Muñoz E, Pellini AC, Machado BC, Russo DH, Timenetsky MD, Carmona RC, , 2016. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic in São Paulo state, Brazil, 2011. Rev Panam Salud Publica 39: 137141. [Google Scholar]
  11. Chansaenroj J, Vongpunsawad S, Puenpa J, Theamboonlers A, Vuthitanachot V, Chattakul P, Areechokchai D, Poovorawan Y, , 2015. Epidemic outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by coxsackievirus A24 in Thailand, 2014. Epidemiol Infect 143: 30873093. [Google Scholar]
  12. Smith AF, Waycaster C, , 2009. Estimate of the direct and indirect annual cost of bacterial conjunctivitis in the United States. BMC Ophthalmol 9: 111. [Google Scholar]
  13. Kuo IC, Espinosa C, Forman M, Valsamakis A, , 2016. A polymerase chain reaction-based algorithm to detect and prevent transmission of adenoviral conjunctivitis in hospital employees. Am J Ophthalmol 163: 3844. [Google Scholar]
  14. Imonikhe R, Flynn TH, Mearza AA, , 2011. Determination of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis variation using internet search engine data. Eye (Lond) 25: 1663 [Google Scholar]
  15. Diboulo E, Sié A, Rocklöv J, Niamba L, M, Bagagnan C, Sauerborn R, , 2012. Weather and mortality: a 10 year retrospective analysis of the Nouna health and demographic surveillance system, Burkina Faso. Glob Health Action 5: 3238. [Google Scholar]
  16. Hong J, 2016. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: a retrospective registry study. Sci Rep 6: 23858. [Google Scholar]
  17. Burki T, , 2013. Infectious diseases in Malian and Syrian conflicts. Lancet Infect Dis 13: 296297. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 11 Aug 2017
  • Accepted : 31 Mar 2018
  • Published online : 14 May 2018

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error