Volume 98, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In 2013, the under-5 mortality rate in Liberia was 71 deaths per 1,000 live births, with malaria responsible for 22% of those deaths. One of the primary existing control tools, long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs), is thought to be dually effective, acting as a physical barrier but also decreasing the mosquito population in communities. However, there has been little investigation into the protective effects of community-wide bed net use above and beyond the individual level. Using data from the population-representative 2011 Liberia Malaria Indicator Survey, we estimated the association between proportion of a community using LLINs and malaria in children using multi-level logistic regression. To investigate the potential effect measure modification of the relationship by urbanicity, we included an interaction term and calculated stratum-specific prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for rural and urban communities. We calculated a POR of malaria for an absolute 10% increase in community bed net use of 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91, 1.41) and 0.35 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.92) for rural and urban communities, respectively, indicating a strong, though imprecise, protective effect within urban communities only. Our results indicate that bed net use has an indirect protective effect in urban areas, above and beyond individual use. Little or no such effect of community-wide use is seen in rural areas, likely because of population density factors. Therefore, although all control efforts should be multifaceted, promotion of bed net use in urban areas in particular will likely be a highly effective tool for control.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Table

  • Received : 03 Aug 2017
  • Accepted : 06 Dec 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error