Volume 98, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The aim of this study was to determine for the first time the prevalence of enteroparasites in preschool children originating from the seven departments of the Pacific region in Nicaragua. One stool sample of each of 1,217 children, from 6 months to 5 years of age, was collected and personal data were recorded on delivery of the container. Samples fixed in 10% formalin were processed by a formol-acetate concentration and a modified Ziehl–Neelsen technique. The overall prevalence of enteroparasite infections was 68.2% with a total of at least 20 species. (45.5%), (31.7%), (8.2%), and (5.2%) were the most prevalent protozoa and helminth species in the total study as well as in all departments. Protozoan prevalence presented a statistically significant difference by gender (male: 69.6%; female: 46.7%; < 0.001), and males presented a higher infection rate than females (male: 9.9%; female 6.4%; < 0.035). Protozoan prevalence increased with age with a statistically significant difference ( < 0.001). Helminths were always more prevalent in urban areas ( < 0.0002). Protozoan infections result statistically higher than helminth infections so that water-based transmission could be suspected. Based on the differences with respect to species and parasite prevalence between the seven departments in the Pacific region of Nicaragua, the exploration of local factors associated with the transmission of enteroparasites should also be considered to reduce infection.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Black RE, Morris SS, Brice J, , 2003. Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? Lancet 361: 22262234. [Google Scholar]
  2. Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, Geiger SM, Loukas A, Diemert D, Hotez PJ, , 2006. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet 6: 15211532. [Google Scholar]
  3. Albonico M, Allen H, Chitsulo L, Engels D, Gabrielli AF, Savioli L, , 2008. Controlling soil-transmitted helminthiasis in pre-school-age children through preventive chemotherapy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e126. [Google Scholar]
  4. Júlio C, Vilares A, Oleastro M, Ferreira I, Gomes S, Monteiro L, Nunes B, Tenreiro R, Angelo H, , 2012. Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia duodenalis infection among children: a case study in Portugal. Parasit Vectors 5: 22. [Google Scholar]
  5. Siwila J, Phiri IG, Enemark HL, Nchito M, Olsen A, , 2010. Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 104: 122128. [Google Scholar]
  6. Stephenson LS, Latham MC, Ottesen EA, , 2000. Malnutrition and parasitic helminth infections. Parasitology 121 (Suppl): S23S38. [Google Scholar]
  7. Brooker S, Clements AC, Bundy DA, , 2006. Global epidemiology, ecology and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Adv Parasitol 62: 221261. [Google Scholar]
  8. Hotez PJ, Brindley PJ, Bethony JM, King CH, Pearce EJ, Jacobson J, , 2008. Helminth infections: the great neglected tropical diseases. J Clin Invest 118: 13111321. [Google Scholar]
  9. WHO, 2011. Helminth Control in School-Age Children: A Guide for Managers of Control Programmes. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  10. Escobedo AA, Cañete R, Núñez FA, , 2008. Prevalence, risk factors and clinical features associated with intestinal parasitic infections in children from San Juan y Martínez, Pinar del Río, Cuba. West Indian Med J 57: 377382. [Google Scholar]
  11. Gonçalves AL, Belizário TL, Pimentel Jde B, Penatti MP, Pedroso Rdos S, , 2011. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 44: 191193. [Google Scholar]
  12. Wongstitwilairoong B, Srijan A, Serichantalergs O, Fukuda CD, McDaniel P, Bodhidatta L, Mason CJ, , 2007. Intestinal parasitic infections among pre-school children in Sangkhlaburi, Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 345350. [Google Scholar]
  13. Cavuoti D, Lancaster KR, , 1992. Intestinal parasitism of children on Corn Island, Nicaragua. Pediatr Infect Dis J 11: 775776. [Google Scholar]
  14. Téllez A, Morales W, Rivera T, Meyer E, Leiva B, Linder E, , 1997. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in the human population of León, Nicaragua. Acta Trop 66: 119125. [Google Scholar]
  15. Oberhelman RA, Guerrero ES, Fernandez ML, Silio M, Mercado D, Comiskey N, Ihenacho G, Mera R, , 1998. Correlations between intestinal parasitosis, physical growth and psychomotor development among infants and children from rural Nicaragua. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58: 470475. [Google Scholar]
  16. Rosewell A, Robleto G, Rodríguez G, Barragne-Bigot P, Amador JJ, Aldighieri S, , 2010. Soil-transmitted helminth infection and urbanization in 880 primary school children in Nicaragua, 2005. Trop Doct 40: 141143. [Google Scholar]
  17. Muñoz-Antoli C, Pavón A, Marcilla A, Toledo R, Esteban JG, , 2014. Prevalence and risk factors related to intestinal parasites among children in Department of Rio San Juan, Nicaragua. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 108: 774782. [Google Scholar]
  18. Muñoz-Antoli C, Pavón A, Pérez P, Toledo R, Esteban JG, , 2017. Soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren of Laguna de Perlas (Nicaragua). J Trop Pediatr 63: 124134. [Google Scholar]
  19. Ash LR, Orihel TC, Savioli L, , 1994. Bench Aids for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  20. Dana D, Mekonnen Z, Emana D, Ayana M, Getachew M, Workneh N, Vercruysse J, Levecke B, , 2015. Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections among pre-school age children in 12 kindergartens in Jimma Town, southwest Ethiopia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 109: 225227. [Google Scholar]
  21. Saboyá MI, Catalá L, Nicholls RS, Ault SK, , 2013. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2419. [Google Scholar]
  22. Pullan RL, Smith JL, Jasrasaria R, Brooker SJ, , 2014. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010. Parasit Vectors 7: 37. [Google Scholar]
  23. Cerdas C, Araya E, Coto S, , 2003. Parásitos intestinales en la escuela 15 de agosto, Tirrases de Curridabat, Costa Rica. Mayo-Junio de 2002. Rev Costaricense Cienc Med 24: 127133. [Google Scholar]
  24. Lavin J, Pérez A, Finlay CM, Sarracent J, , 2008. Parasitismo intestinal en una cohorte de escolares en 2 municipios de Ciudad de La Habana. Rev Cubana Med Trop 60: 3780. [Google Scholar]
  25. Cook DM, Chad R, Eggett DL, Booth GM, , 2009. A retrospective analysis of prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among school children in the Palajunoj Valley of Guatemala. J Health Popul Nutr 27: 3140. [Google Scholar]
  26. Rodríguez-Guzmán LM, Hernández-Jerónimo EJ, Rodríguez-García R, , 2000. Parasitosis intestinal en niños seleccionados en una consulta ambulatoria de un hospital. Rev Mexicana Pediatr 67: 117122. [Google Scholar]
  27. Mendoza D, Núñez FA, Escobedo A, Pelayo L, Fernández M, Torres D, Cordoví RA, , 2001. Parasitosis intestinales en 4 círculos infantiles de San Miguel del Padrón, Ciudad de La Habana, 1998. Acta Cubana Med Trop 53: 189193. [Google Scholar]
  28. Anderson TJ, Zizza CA, Leche GM, Scott ME, Solomons NW, , 1993. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 88: 5365. [Google Scholar]
  29. Corrales LF, Izurieta R, Moe CL, , 2006. Association between intestinal parasitic infections and type of sanitation system in rural El Salvador. Trop Med Int Health 11: 18211831. [Google Scholar]
  30. Sanchez AL, Gabrie JA, Rueda MM, Mejia RE, Bottazzi ME, Canales M, , 2014. A scoping review and prevalence analysis of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Honduras. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e2653. [Google Scholar]
  31. Gabrie JA, Rueda MM, Canales M, Gyorkos TW, Sanchez AL, , 2014. School hygiene and deworming are key protective factors for reduced transmission of soil-transmitted helminths among schoolchildren in Honduras. Parasit Vectors 7: 354. [Google Scholar]
  32. Mejia Torres RE, Franco Garcia DN, Fontecha Sandoval GA, Hernandez Santana A, Singh P, Mancero Bucheli ST, Saboya M, Paz MY, , 2014. Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, prevalence of malaria and nutritional status of school going children in Honduras. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e3248. [Google Scholar]
  33. Sorto OR, 2015. Prevalence and intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths and prevalence of malaria among schoolchildren in El Salvador [in Spanish]. Biomedica 35: 407418. [Google Scholar]
  34. Cañete R, Díaz MM, Avalos García R, Laúd Martinez PM, Manuel Ponce F, , 2012. Intestinal parasites in children from a day care centre in Matanzas city, Cuba. PLoS One 7: e51394. [Google Scholar]
  35. Smith H, Dekaminsky R, Niwas S, Soto R, Jolly P, , 2001. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96: 303314. [Google Scholar]
  36. Aimpun P, Hshieh P, , 2004. Survey for intestinal parasites in Belize, Central America. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35: 506511. [Google Scholar]
  37. Champetier de Ribes G, Fline M, Désormeaux AM, Eyma E, Montagut P, Champagne C, Pierre J, Pape W, Raccurt CP, , 2005. Intestinal helminthiasis in school children in Haiti in 2002 [in Spanish]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 98: 127132. [Google Scholar]
  38. Sorensen WC, Cappello M, Bell D, Difedele LM, Brown MA, , 2011. Poly-helminth infection in east Guatemalan school children. J Glob Infect Dis 3: 2531. [Google Scholar]
  39. Chammartin F, Scholte RG, Guimarães LH, Tanner M, Utzinger J, Vounatsou P, , 2013. Soil-transmitted helminth infection in South America: a systematic review and geostatistical meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 13: 507518. [Google Scholar]
  40. Al-Mekhlafi AM, Abdul-Ghani R, Al-Eryani SM, Saif-Ali R, Mahdy MA, , 2016. School-based prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in rural communities of Sana’a, Yemen. Acta Trop 163: 135141. [Google Scholar]
  41. Mendoza D, Núñez FA, Escobedo A, Pelayo L, Fernández M, Torres D, Cordoví RA, , 2001. Intestinal parasitic infections in 4 child day-care centers located in San Miguel del Padrón municipality, Havana city, 1998 [in Spanish]. Rev Cubana Med Trop 53: 189193. [Google Scholar]
  42. Tyoalumun K, Abubakar S, Christopher N, , 2016. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their association with nutritional status of rural and urban pre-school children in Benue State, Nigeria. Int J MCH AIDS 5: 146152. [Google Scholar]
  43. Mehraj V, Hatcher J, Akhtar S, Rafique G, Beg MA, , 2008. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among children in an urban slum of Karachi. PLoS One 3: e3680. [Google Scholar]
  44. Gutierrez-Jimenez J, Torres-Sanchez MG, Fajardo-Martinez LP, Schlie-Guzman MA, Luna-Cazares LM, Gonzalez-Esquinca AR, Guerrero-Fuentes S, Vidal JE, , 2013. Malnutrition and the presence of intestinal parasites in children from the poorest municipalities of Mexico. J Infect Dev Ctries 7: 741747. [Google Scholar]
  45. Steinmann P, Utzinger J, Du ZW, Zhou XN, , 2010. Multiparasitism a neglected reality on global, regional and local scale. Adv Parasitol 73: 2150. [Google Scholar]
  46. Raso G, 2004. Multiple parasite infections and their relationship to self-reported morbidity in a community of rural Côte d’Ivoire. Int J Epidemiol 33: 10921102. [Google Scholar]
  47. Supali T, 2010. Polyparasitism and its impact on the immune system. Int J Parasitol 40: 11711176. [Google Scholar]
  48. Gomila B, Toledo R, Esteban JG, , 2011. Non-pathogenic intestinal amoebae: a clinical-analytical overview [in Spanish]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 29: 2028. [Google Scholar]
  49. Montresor A, Crompton DWT, Bundy DAP, Hall A, Savioli L, , 1998. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Soil-Transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis at Community Level (WHO/CDS/SIP/98.1). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 11 Jul 2017
  • Accepted : 25 Oct 2017
  • Published online : 18 Dec 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error