Volume 98, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Current guidelines for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) recommend the use of the lentil lectin-bound glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (LLGP-EITB) as the reference standard for serological testing. In response to the drawbacks involved with the use of the LLGP-EITB, a recombinant T24H antigen (rT24H) EITB assay was developed, with promising results. However, the test has yet to be evaluated among individuals from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The aim of the present study was to investigate the performance of the rT24H EITB assay for the detection of NCC cases in a panel of serum samples ( = 366, of which 173 patients presented with epileptic seizures and/or severe chronic headaches, and 193 matched manifestation-free participants) collected as part of a large community-based trial in Burkina Faso. A perfect agreement between the rT24H EITB and the native gp24 (and its homodimer, gp42) LLGP-EITB was found (kappa value of 1.0). Furthermore, among patients with the neurological manifestations of interest who underwent a computed tomography scan, the rT24H EITB and native antigen LLGP-EITB had a comparable ability to correctly identify NCC cases with multiple viable (rT24H: sensitivity: 80.0%), single viable (66.7%), and calcified/degenerating cysts only (25.0%), albeit for multiple viable and calcified cysts, the rT24H estimated sensitivity seemed lower, but more uncertain, than previously reported. The rT24H EITB specificity was high (98.2%) and in line with previous studies. This study confirms the value of the recombinant rT24H EITB as an alternative to the native antigen LLGP-EITB for the diagnosis of NCC in a SSA community setting.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. World Health Organization, 2012. Accelerating Work to Overcome the Global Impact of Neglected Tropical Diseases–A Roadmap for Implementation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Available at: http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/NTD_RoadMap_2012_Fullversion.pdf?ua=1. Accessed July 7, 2017.
  2. Ndimubanzi PC, Carabin H, Budke CM, Nguyen H, Qian YJ, Rainwater E, Dickey M, Reynolds S, Stoner JA, , 2010. A systematic review of the frequency of neurocyticercosis with a focus on people with epilepsy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e870. [Google Scholar]
  3. Carabin H, Ndimubanzi PC, Budke CM, Nguyen H, Qian Y, Cowan LD, Stoner JA, Rainwater E, Dickey M, , 2011. Clinical manifestations associated with neurocysticercosis: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1152. [Google Scholar]
  4. Del Brutto OH, Nash TE, White AC, Jr Rajshekhar V, Wilkins PP, Singh G, Vasquez CM, Salgado P, Gilman RH, Garcia HH, , 2017. Revised diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis. J Neurol Sci 372: 202210. [Google Scholar]
  5. Winkler AS, Richter H, World Health Organization; , 2015. Landscape Analysis : Management of Neurocysticercosis with an Emphasis on Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Available at: http://www.who.int/taeniasis/resources/who_htm_ntd_nzd_2015.05/en/. Accessed July 7, 2017.
  6. Tsang VCW, Brand JA, Boyer AE, , 1989. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay and glycoprotein antigens for diagnosing human cysticercosis (Taenia solium). J Infect Dis 159: 5059. [Google Scholar]
  7. Noh J, Rodriguez S, Lee YMY-M, Handali S, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH, Tsang VCW, Garcia HH, Wilkins PP, , 2014. Recombinant protein- and synthetic peptide-based immunoblot test for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. J Clin Microbiol 52: 14291434. [Google Scholar]
  8. Wilson M, Bryan R, Fried J, Ware D, Schantz P, Pilcher J, Tsang V, , 1991. Clinical evaluation of the cysticercosis enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot in patients with neurocysticercosis. J Infect Dis 164: 10071009. [Google Scholar]
  9. Deckers N, Dorny P, , 2010. Immunodiagnosis of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis. Trends Parasitol 26: 137144. [Google Scholar]
  10. Handali S, 2010. Multiantigen print immunoassay for comparison of diagnostic antigens for Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 17: 6872. [Google Scholar]
  11. Lee YM, 2011. Serologic diagnosis of human Taenia solium cysticercosis by using recombinant and synthetic antigens in QuickELISA. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 587593. [Google Scholar]
  12. Hancock K, Pattabhi S, Whitfield FW, Yushak ML, Lane WS, Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH, Tsang VCW, , 2006. Characterization and cloning of T24, a Taenia solium antigen diagnostic for cysticercosis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 147: 109117. [Google Scholar]
  13. Carabin H, Millogo A, Cissé A, Gabriël S, Sahlu I, Dorny P, Bauer C, Tarnagda Z, Cowan LD, Ganaba R, , 2015. Prevalence of and factors associated with human cysticercosis in 60 villages in three provinces of Burkina Faso. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: 120. [Google Scholar]
  14. Jensen R, Stovner LJ, , 2008. Epidemiology and comorbidity of headache. Lancet Neurol 7: 354361. [Google Scholar]
  15. Landis J, Koch G, , 1977. An application of hierarchical kappa-type statistics in the assessment of majority agreement among multiple observers. Biometrics 33: 363374. [Google Scholar]
  16. Landis J, Koch G, , 1977. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 33: 159174. [Google Scholar]
  17. R Core Team, 2016. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Available at: http://www.r-project.org/. Accessed July 7, 2017.
  18. Furrows SJ, McCroddan J, Bligh WJ, Chiodini P, , 2006. Lack of specificity of a single positive 50-kDa band in the electroimmunotransfer blot (EITB) assay for cysticercosis. Clin Microbiol Infect 12: 459462. [Google Scholar]
  19. Singhi P, , 2011. Neurocysticercosis. Ther Adv Neurol Disorder 4: 6781. [Google Scholar]
  20. Zea-Vera A, 2013. Parasite antigen in serum predicts the presence of viable brain parasites in patients with apparently calcified cysticercosis only. Clin Infect Dis 57: 154159. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Material

  • Received : 07 Jul 2017
  • Accepted : 30 Oct 2017
  • Published online : 26 Dec 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error