image of Use of a Novel Portable Three-Dimensional Scanner to Measure Limb Volume and Circumference in Patients with Filarial Lymphedema
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


The World Health Organization’s Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) has reduced LF transmission worldwide, but millions remain affected by filarial lymphedema. Tools for clinically monitoring lymphedema in developing nations are limited. We tested a novel, portable, infrared three-dimensional (3D) scanner against water displacement (WD) and tape measurement of limb circumference (TMLC) among patients with filarial leg lymphedema in Galle, Sri Lanka. Outcomes were accuracy and reproducibility of scanner measurements. In parallel, we also tested the reproducibility of skin thickness ultrasound (STU) measurements. We examined 52 patients (104 limbs) with lymphedema of stages 0–6 ( = 28, 19, 20, 21, 2, 4, and 10, respectively). Scanner measurements correlated nearly perfectly with WD ( = 0.9945) and TMLC values ( > 0.9801). The average time required to acquire scanner measurements for both legs was 2.2 minutes, compared with 17.4, 7.5, and 31.7 minutes, respectively, for WD, TMLC, and STU. Median interexaminer coefficients of variation (CVs) for volume measurements were 1.1% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.5–2.1%) for WD and 1.7% (IQR 1.2–2.4%) for the 3D scanner. CVs for circumference measurements were 1.4% (IQR 0.8–2.4%) by TMLC and 1.3% (0.8–1.9%) by the 3D scanner. Median interexaminer CV for STU was 13.7% (IQR 8.5–21.3%). The portable 3D scanner noninvasively provided accurate and reproducible limb volume and circumference measurements in approximately 2 minutes per patient. This portable technology has the potential to greatly improve assessment and monitoring of lymphedema in the clinic and in the field.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

  • Published online : 16 Oct 2017
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error