Volume 98, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Laboratory data and prior pediatric reports indicate that HIV protease inhibitor (PI)–based antiretroviral therapy (ARV) kills gametocytes and reduces rates of gametocytemia, but not asymptomatic parasitemia, in a high malaria-transmission area. To determine whether ARV regimen impacts these rates in areas with less-intense malaria transmission, we compared asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia rates in HIV-infected children by ARV regimen in Lilongwe, Malawi, an area of low-to-moderate transmission intensity. HIV PI lopinavir–ritonavir (LPV–rtv) ARV– or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine ARV–treated children did not differ in the rates of polymerase chain reaction-detected asymptomatic parasitemia (relative risk [RR] 0.43 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.16, 1.18], value 0.10) or microscopically detected gametocytemia with LPV–rtv ARV during symptomatic malaria (RR 0.48 95% CI [0.22,1.04] value 0.06). LPV–rtv ARV was not associated with reduced rates of asymptomatic parasitemia, or gametocytemia on days of symptomatic malaria episodes, in HIV-infected children. Larger studies should evaluate whether ARV impacts transmission.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 13 Jun 2017
  • Accepted : 13 Sep 2017
  • Published online : 20 Nov 2017

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