Volume 98, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We conducted an open label, dose escalation Phase 1 clinical trial of a tetravalent dengue DNA vaccine (TVDV) formulated in Vaxfectin to assess safety and immunogenicity. A total of 40 dengue- and flavivirus-naive volunteers received either low-dose (1 mg) TVDV alone ( = 10, group 1), low-dose TVDV (1 mg) formulated in Vaxfectin ( = 10, group 2), or high-dose TVDV (2 mg, group 3) formulated in Vaxfectin ( = 20). Subjects were immunized intramuscularly with three doses on a 0-, 30-, 90-day schedule and monitored. Blood samples were obtained after each immunization and various time points thereafter to assess anti-dengue antibody and interferon gamma (IFNγ) T-cell immune responses. The most common adverse events (AEs) across all groups included mild to moderate pain and tenderness at the injection site, which typically resolved within 7 days. Common solicited signs and symptoms included fatigue (42.5%), headache (45%), and myalgias (47.5%). There were no serious AEs related to the vaccine or study procedures. No anti-dengue antibody responses were detected in group 1 subjects who received all three immunizations. There were minimal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and neutralizing antibody responses among groups 2 and 3 subjects who completed the immunization schedule. By contrast, IFNγ T-cell responses, regardless of serotype specificity, occurred in 70%, 50%, and 79% of subjects in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The largest IFNγ T-cell responses were among group 3 subjects. We conclude that TVDV was safe and well-tolerated and elicited predominately anti-dengue T-cell IFNγ responses in a dose-related fashion.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 27 May 2017
  • Accepted : 25 Nov 2017
  • Published online : 22 Jan 2018

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