Volume 98, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines’ milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers ( = 25), street vendors ( = 21), and three MVMs ( = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya. Antibiotic residue surveillance occurred during December 2016 and January 2017 using Idexx SNAP tests for tetracyclines, sulfamethazine, beta-lactams, and gentamicin. Overall, 24% of MVM samples and 24% of street vendor samples were presumably positive for at least one antibiotic. No commercial samples were positive. Research into cost-effective screening methods and increased monitoring by food safety agencies are needed to uphold hazard analysis and critical control point for improving antibiotic stewardship throughout the Kenyan private dairy industry.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Ashbolt NJ et al., 2013. Human health risk assessment (HHRA) for environmental development and transfer of antibiotic resistance. Environ Health Perspect 121: 9931001.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Vlieghe E, Phoba MF, Tamfun JM, Jacobs J, 2009. Antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in Central Africa: a review of the published literature between 1955 and 2008. Int J Antimicrob Agents 34: 295303.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Morgan DJ, Okeke IN, Laxminarayan R, Perencevich EN, Weisenberg S, 2011. Non-prescription antimicrobial use worldwide: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis 11: 692701.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Kimang’a AN, 2012. A situational analysis of antimicrobial drug resistance in Africa: are we losing the battle? Ethiop J Health Sci 22: 135143.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Kelesidis T, Falagas ME, 2015. Substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs. Clin Microbiol Rev 28: 443464.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. World Health Organization, 2012. Report of the 3rd Meeting of the WHO Advisory Group on Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance Through Integrated Surveillance. June 14–17, 2011, Oslo, Norway: WHO. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/75198/1/9789241504010_eng.pdf. Accessed May 22, 2017.
  7. Lupindu AM, Dalsgaard A, Msoffe PL, Ngowi HA, Mtambo MM, Olsen JE, 2015. Transmission of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli between cattle, humans and the environment in peri-urban livestock keeping communities in Morogoro, Tanzania. Prev Vet Med 118: 477482.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. O’Neill J, 2016. Tackling Drug-Resistant Infections Globally: Final Report and Recommendations. The Review on Antimicrobial Resistance. London, United Kingdom: HM (UK) Government. Available at: https://amr-review.org/sites/default/files/160525_Final%20paper_with%20cover.pdf. Accessed May 22, 2017.
  9. Shitandi A, Sternesjö ÅSE, 2001. Detection of antimicrobial drug residues in Kenyan milk. J Food Saf 21: 205214.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. East African Community, 2006. East African Standard Pasteurized Milk Specification, EAS 69:2006, ICS 67.100. Available at: https://law.resource.org/pub/eac/ibr/eas.69.2006.html. Accessed December 10, 2017.
  11. Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2017. Codex Alimentarius: Maximum Residue Limits and Risk Management Recommendations for Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods, CAC/MRL 2-2017. Rome, Italy: World Health Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available at: http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/sh-proxy/en/?lnk=1&url=https%253A%252F%252Fworkspace.fao.org%252Fsites%252Fcodex%252FStandards%252FCAC%2BMRL%2B2%252FMRL2e.pdf. Accessed December 10, 2017.
  12. Shitandi A, Sternesjö Å, 2004. Prevalence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk from large-and small-scale producers in Kenya. J Dairy Sci 87: 41454149.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kenyan Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, 2013. Sessional Paper Number 5 of 2013 on the National Dairy Development Policy. Available at: https://kdb.co.ke/press/publications/acts/22-national-dairy-development-policy-of-2013/file. Accessed December 10, 2017.
  14. Ndungu TW, Muliro PS, Omwamba M, Oosterwijk G, Jansen A, 2016. Quality control of raw milk in the smallholder collection and bulking enterprises in Nakuru and Nyandarua counties, Kenya. Afr J Food Sci 10: 7078.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. IDEXX, 2018. SNAP Tests Use ELISA Technology. Available at: https://www.idexx.com/en/milk/dairy-tests/snap-tests-use-elisa-technology/. Accessed February 6, 2018.
  16. Orwa JD, Matofari JW, Muliro PS, Lamuka P, 2017. Assessment of sulphonamides and tetracyclines antibiotic residue contaminants in rural and peri urban dairy value chains in Kenya. Int J Food Contam 4: 5.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kang’ethe EK, Aboge GO, Arimi SM, Kanja LW, Omore AO, McDermott JJ, 2005. Investigation of the risk of consuming marketed milk with antimicrobial residues in Kenya. Food Control 16: 349355.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Omore AO, Arimi SM, Kang’ethe EK, McDermott JJ, Staal SJ, 2002. Analysis of Milk-Borne Public Health Risks in Milk Markets in Kenya. Annual Symposium of the Annual Production Society of Kenya, May 10, 2002, Naivasha, Kenya. Available at: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/2203/Omore%20et%20al-2002-Milkborne%20public%20health%20risks-APSK.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. Accessed May 22, 2017.
  19. Baker S, Hombach J, Marks F, 2016. What have we learned from the typhoid fever surveillance in Africa program? Clin Infect Dis 62 (Suppl 1): S1S3.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Carroll M, Rangaiahagari A, Musabeyezu E, Singer D, Ogbuagu O, 2016. Five-year antimicrobial susceptibility trends among bacterial isolates from a tertiary health-care facility in Kigali, Rwanda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 95: 12771283.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 May 2017
  • Accepted : 06 Feb 2018
  • Published online : 19 Mar 2018
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error