1921
Volume 97, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an important emerging flavivirus in North America. Experimental studies in animals infer the development of persistent infection in the kidneys. In humans, recent studies suggest the possibility of persistent renal infection and chronic kidney disease. Considering the discrepancies between published studies on viral RNA detection in urine of convalescing WNV-positive patients, we explored the use of electron microscopy (EM) with anti-WNV E protein antibody immunogold labeling to detect virus in the urine sediment from a subset of study participants in the Houston WNV cohort. In 42% of evaluated study participants had visible sediment present in urine after centrifugation; viral particles consistent with the size and morphology of WNV were successfully detected using EM in the urine sediment up to 9 years postinfection. The anti-WNV immunogold labeling bound to virus envelope in the sediment allowed for enhanced detection when compared with PCR and provide a new technique for understanding kidney disease in WNV patients. These results provide further evidence of persistent infection in at least a subset of individuals infected with WNV. These findings present a novel tool to diagnose persistent WNV infection and its possible link with progressive renal pathology.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0405
2017-12-06
2018-12-11
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/97/6/tpmd170405.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0405&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Petersen LR, Carson PJ, Biggerstaff BJ, Custer B, Borchardt SM, Busch MP, , 2013. Estimated cumulative incidence of West Nile virus infection in US adults, 1999–2010. Epidemiol Infect 141: 591595.
  2. Appler KK, Brown AN, Stewart BS, Behr MJ, Demarest VL, Wong SJ, Bernard KA, , 2010. Persistence of West Nile virus in the central nervous system and periphery of mice. PLoS One 5: e10649.
  3. Pogodina VV, Frolova MP, Malenko GV, Fokina GI, Koreshkova GV, Kiseleva LL, Bochkova NG, Ralph NM, , 1983. Study on West Nile virus persistence in monkeys. Arch Virol 75: 7186.
  4. Siddharthan V, Wang H, Motter NE, Hall JO, Skinner RD, Skirpstunas RT, Morrey JD, , 2009. Persistent West Nile virus associated with a neurological sequela in hamsters identified by motor unit number estimation. J Virol 83: 42514261.
  5. Tesh RB, Siirin M, Guzman H, Travassos da Rosa AP, Wu X, Duan T, Lei H, Nunes MR, Xiao SY, , 2005. Persistent West Nile virus infection in the golden hamster: studies on its mechanism and possible implications for other flavivirus infections. J Infect Dis 192: 287295.
  6. Tonry JH, Brown CB, Cropp CB, Co JK, Bennett SN, Nerurkar VR, Kuberski T, Gubler DJ, , 2005. West Nile virus detection in urine. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 12941296.
  7. Murray K, Walker C, Herrington E, Lewis JA, McCormick J, Beasley DW, Tesh RB, Fisher-Hoch S, , 2010. Persistent infection with West Nile virus years after initial infection. J Infect Dis 201: 24.
  8. Nolan MS, Podoll AS, Hause AM, Akers KM, Finkel KW, Murray KO, , 2012. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and progression of disease over time among patients enrolled in the Houston West Nile virus cohort. PLoS One 7: e40374.
  9. Gibney KB, Lanciotti RS, Sejvar JJ, Nugent CT, Linnen JM, Delorey MJ, Lehman JA, Boswell EN, Staples JE, Fischer M, , 2011. West Nile virus RNA not detected in urine of 40 people tested 6 years after acute West Nile virus disease. J Infect Dis 203: 344347.
  10. Baty SA, 2012. Evaluation for West Nile virus (WNV) RNA in urine of patients within 5 months of WNV infection. J Infect Dis 205: 14761477.
  11. Barzon L, Pacenti M, Franchin E, Pagni S, Martello T, Cattai M, Cusinato R, Palu G, , 2013. Excretion of West Nile virus in urine during acute infection. J Infect Dis 208: 10861092.
  12. Barzon L, Pacenti M, Franchin E, Squarzon L, Sinigaglia A, Ulbert S, Cusinato R, Palu G, , 2014. Isolation of West Nile virus from urine samples of patients with acute infection. J Clin Microbiol 52: 34113413.
  13. Ergunay K, Karagul A, Abudalal A, Hacioglu S, Us D, Erdem Y, Ozkul A, , 2015. Prospective investigation of the impact of West Nile virus infections in renal diseases. J Med Virol 87: 16251632.
  14. Nagy A, Ban E, Nagy O, Ferenczi E, Farkas A, Banyai K, Farkas S, Takacs M, , 2016. Detection and sequencing of West Nile virus RNA from human urine and serum samples during the 2014 seasonal period. Arch Virol 161: 17971806.
  15. Papa A, Testa T, Papadopoulou E, , 2014. Detection of West Nile virus lineage 2 in the urine of acute human infections. J Med Virol 86: 21422145.
  16. Johnson DJ, Ostlund EN, Pedersen DD, Schmitt BJ, , 2001. Detection of North American West Nile virus in animal tissue by a reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 739741.
  17. Crill WD, Trainor NB, Chang GJ, , 2007. A detailed mutagenesis study of flavivirus cross-reactive epitopes using West Nile virus-like particles. J Gen Virol 88: 11691174.
  18. Martin DA, Biggerstaff BJ, Allen B, Johnson AJ, Lanciotti RS, Roehrig JT, , 2002. Use of immunoglobulin m cross-reactions in differential diagnosis of human flaviviral encephalitis infections in the United States. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9: 544549.
  19. Lillibridge KM, 2004. The 2002 introduction of West Nile virus into Harris County, Texas, an area historically endemic for St. Louis encephalitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 676681.
  20. Beasley DW, 2004. Use of a recombinant envelope protein subunit antigen for specific serological diagnosis of West Nile virus infection. J Clin Microbiol 42: 27592765.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0405
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0405
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 May 2017
  • Accepted : 19 Jun 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error