Volume 98, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



spp. are medically important unicellular parasites transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. The World Health Organization recently highlighted the importance of reliable diagnostic tools for leishmaniasis. Our study of human infection was conducted in two endemic foci of in the Galilee region, northern Israel. Elevated anti- antibodies were present in the majority (78.6%) of -PCR positive individuals. Moreover, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed high sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values (ranging between 73% and 79%), thus fulfilling the basic requirement for future development of a serodiagnostic and screening tool. The anti-sand fly saliva antibodies used as biomarkers of exposure reflected the composition of the local sand fly fauna as well as the abundance of individual species. High levels of antibodies against vector salivary proteins may further indicate frequent exposure to sand flies and consequently a higher probability of transmission.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Jacobson RL, , 2003. Leishmania tropica (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae)—a perplexing parasite. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 50: 241250. [Google Scholar]
  2. Handler MZ, Patel PA, Kapila R, Al-Qubati Y, Schwartz RA, , 2015. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis clinical perspectives. J Am Acad Dermatol 73: 897910. [Google Scholar]
  3. Gandacu D, Glazer Y, Anis E, Karakis I, Warshavsky B, Slater P, Grotto I, , 2014. Resurgence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001–2012. Emerg Infect Dis 20: 16051611. [Google Scholar]
  4. Vinitsky O, Ore L, Habiballa H, Dar MC, , 2010. Geographic and epidemiologic analysis of the cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak in northern Israel, 2000–2003. Isr Med Assoc J 12: 652656. [Google Scholar]
  5. Singer SR, Abramson N, Shoob H, Zaken O, Zentner G, Stein-Zamir C, , 2008. Ecoepidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 14241426. [Google Scholar]
  6. Talmi-Frank D, Jaffe CL, Nasereddin A, Warburg A, King R, Svobodova M, Peleg O, Baneth G, , 2010. Leishmania tropica in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) in a focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 814818. [Google Scholar]
  7. Svobodova M, Volf P, Votypka J, , 2006. Experimental transmission of Leishmania tropica to hyraxes (Procavia capensis) by the bite of Phlebotomus arabicus. Microbes Infect 8: 16911694. [Google Scholar]
  8. Jacobson RL, 2003. Outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Israel. J Infect Dis 188: 10651073. [Google Scholar]
  9. Svobodova M, 2006. Distinct transmission cycles of Leishmania tropica in 2 adjacent foci, northern Israel. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 18601868. [Google Scholar]
  10. Savioli L, Velayudhan R, , 2014. Small bite, big threat: World Health Day 2014. East Mediterr Health J 20: 217218. [Google Scholar]
  11. Lestinova T, Rohousova I, Sima M, de Oliveira CI, Volf P, , 2017. Insights into the sand fly saliva: blood-feeding and immune interactions between sand flies, hosts, and Leishmania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11: e0005600. [Google Scholar]
  12. de Vries HJC, Reedijk SH, Schallig H, , 2015. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: recent developments in diagnosis and management. Am J Clin Dermatol 16: 99109. [Google Scholar]
  13. Elsafi SH, Evans DA, , 1989. A comparison of the direct agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis in the Sudan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83: 334337. [Google Scholar]
  14. Al-Salem WS, 2014. Detection of high levels of anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies in sera of patients with old world cutaneous leishmaniasis: a possible tool for diagnosis and biomarker for cure in an elimination setting. Parasitology 141: 18981903. [Google Scholar]
  15. Costa LE, 2016. New serological tools for improved diagnosis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis. J Immunol Methods 434: 3945. [Google Scholar]
  16. Celeste BJ, Sanchez MCA, Ramos-Sanchez EM, Castro LGM, Costa FAL, Goto H, , 2014. Recombinant Leishmania infantum heat shock protein 83 for the serodiagnosis of cutaneous, mucosal, and visceral leishmaniases. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 860865. [Google Scholar]
  17. Rohousova I, Ozensoy S, Ozbel Y, Volf P, , 2005. Detection of species-specific antibody response of humans and mice bitten by sand flies. Parasitology 130: 493499. [Google Scholar]
  18. Kravchenko V, Wasserberg G, Warburg A, , 2004. Bionomics of phlebotomine sandflies in the Galilee focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Israel. Med Vet Entomol 18: 418428. [Google Scholar]
  19. Volf P, Rohousová I, , 2001. Species-specific antigens in salivary glands of phlebotomine sandflies. Parasitology 122: 3741. [Google Scholar]
  20. Drahota J, Lipoldova M, Volf P, Rohousova I, , 2009. Specificity of anti-saliva immune response in mice repeatedly bitten by Phlebotomus sergenti. Parasite Immunol 31: 766770. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Figure and Table

  • Received : 09 May 2017
  • Accepted : 21 Aug 2017
  • Published online : 23 Oct 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error