1921
Volume 97, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

In stable transmission areas, malaria is the leading cause of anemia in children. Anemia in children is proposed as an added sensitive indicator for community changes in malaria prevalence. We report short-term temporal variations of malaria and anemia prevalence in rural Malawian children. Data from five repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted over 1 year in rural communities in Chikwawa District, Malawi, were analyzed. Different households were sampled per survey; all children, 6–59 months, in sampled household were tested for malaria parasitemia and hemoglobin levels using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDT) and Hemocue 301, respectively. Malaria symptoms, recent treatment (2 weeks) for malaria, anthropometric measurements, and sociodemographic details were recorded. In total, 894 children were included from 1,377 households. The prevalences of mRDT positive and anemia (Hb < 11 g/dL) were 33.8% and 58.7%, respectively. Temporal trends in anemia and parasite prevalence varied differently. Overall, unadjusted and adjusted relative risks of anemia in mRDT-positive children were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.09–1.57) and 1.36 (1.13–1.63), respectively. Changes in anemia prevalence differed with short-term changes in malaria prevalence, although malaria is an important factor in anemia.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0335
2017-11-08
2017-11-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/97/5/tpmd170335.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0335&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bjorkman A, , 2002. Malaria associated anaemia, drug resistance and antimalarial combination therapy. Int J Parasitol 32: 16371643.[Crossref]
  2. WHO, 2015. The Global Prevalence of Anaemia in 2011. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  3. Korenromp EL, Armstrong-Schellenberg JR, Williams BG, Nahlen BL, Snow RW, , 2004. Impact of malaria control on childhood anaemia in Africa—a quantitative review. Trop Med Int Health 9: 10501065.[Crossref]
  4. Calis JC, ., 2008. Severe Anemia in Malawian Children. N Engl J Med 358: 888899.[Crossref]
  5. McCuskee S, Brickley EB, Wood A, Mossialos E, , 2014. Malaria and macronutrient deficiency as correlates of anemia in young children: a systematic review of observational studies. Ann Glob Health 80: 458465.[Crossref]
  6. Mathanga DP, Campbell CH, Jr Vanden Eng J, Wolkon A, Bronzan RN, Malenga GJ, Ali D, Desai M, , 2010. Comparison of anaemia and parasitaemia as indicators of malaria control in household and EPI-health facility surveys in Malawi. Malar J 9: 107.[Crossref]
  7. Rowe AK, ., 2007. Viewpoint: evaluating the impact of malaria control efforts on mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Med Int Health 12: 15241539.[Crossref]
  8. Bloland PB, Boriga DA, Ruebush TK, McCormick JB, Roberts JM, Oloo AJ, Hawley W, Lal A, Nahlen B, Campbell CC, , 1999. Longitudinal cohort study of the epidemiology of malaria infections in an area of intense malaria transmission II. Descriptive epidemiology of malaria infection and disease among children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60: 641648.[Crossref]
  9. Maketa V, Mavoko HM, da Luz RI, Zanga J, Lubiba J, Kalonji A, Lutumba P, Van Geertruyden JP, , 2015. The relationship between Plasmodium infection, anaemia and nutritional status in asymptomatic children aged under five years living in stable transmission zones in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Malar J 14: 83.[Crossref]
  10. Kateera F, Nsobya SL, Tukwasibwe S, Mens PF, Hakizimana E, Grobusch MP, Mutesa L, Kumar N, van Vugt M, , 2016. Malaria case clinical profiles and Plasmodium falciparum parasite genetic diversity: a cross sectional survey at two sites of different malaria transmission intensities in Rwanda. Malar J 15: 237.[Crossref]
  11. Peyerl-Hoffmann G, Jelinek T, Kilian A, Kabagambe G, Metzger WG, von Sonnenburg F, , 2001. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum and its relationship to parasite density in an area with different malaria endemicities in west Uganda. Trop Med Int Health 6: 607613.[Crossref]
  12. Babiker HA, Lines J, Hill WG, Walliker D, , 1997. Population structure of Plasmodium falciparum in villages with different malaria endemicity in east Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56: 141147.[Crossref]
  13. Noland GS, Ayodo G, Abuya J, Hodges JS, Rolfes MAR, John CC, , 2012. Decreased prevalence of anemia in Highland areas of low malaria transmission after a 1-year interruption of transmission. Clin Infect Dis 54: 178184.[Crossref]
  14. Senn N, Maraga S, Sie A, Rogerson SJ, Reeder JC, Siba P, Mueller I, , 2010. Population hemoglobin mean and anemia prevalence in Papua New Guinea: new metrics for defining malaria endemicity? PLoS One 5: e9375.[Crossref]
  15. Ter Kuile FO, ., 2003. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria and all-cause morbidity in young children in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya: cross-sectional survey. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 100107.
  16. Kabaghe AN, Chipeta MG, McCann RS, Phiri KS, van Vugt M, Takken W, Diggle P, Terlouw AD, , 2017. Adaptive geostatistical sampling enables efficient identification of malaria hotspots in repeated cross-sectional surveys in rural Malawi. PLoS One 12: e0172266.[Crossref]
  17. Roca-Feltrer A, Lalloo DG, Phiri K, Terlouw DJ, , 2012. Rolling malaria indicator surveys (rMIS): a potential district-level malaria monitoring and evaluation (M&E) tool for program managers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 9698.[Crossref]
  18. Mzilahowa T, Hastings IM, Molyneux ME, McCall PJ, , 2012. Entomological indices of malaria transmission in Chikhwawa district, southern Malawi. Malar J 11: 19.[Crossref]
  19. World Health Organization, 2015. Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test Performance Results of WHO Product Testing of Malaria RDTs: Round 6 (2014–2015). Heseltine E, ed. Italy: World Health Organization.
  20. Hiscox A, Otieno B, Kibet A, Mweresa CK, Omusula P, Geier M, Rose A, Mukabana WR, Takken W, , 2014. Development and optimization of the Suna trap as a tool for mosquito monitoring and control. Malar J 13: 257.[Crossref]
  21. Gillies M, Coetzee M, , 1987. A Supplement to the Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Afrotropical Region). South Africa: South African Institute for Medical Research, 55.
  22. Chipeta MG, Terlouw DJ, Phiri KS, Diggle PJ, , 2016. Adaptive geostatistical design and analysis for prevalence surveys. Spat Stat 15: 7084.[Crossref]
  23. R Core Team, 2015. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
  24. Zou G, , 2004. A modified poisson regression approach to prospective studies with binary data. Am J Epidemiol 159: 702706.[Crossref]
  25. Menon MP, Yoon SS, , 2015. Prevalence and factors associated with anemia among children under 5 years of age–Uganda, 2009. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93: 521526.[Crossref]
  26. Chang KH, Stevenson MM, , 2004. Malarial anaemia: mechanisms and implications of insufficient erythropoiesis during blood-stage malaria. Int J Parasitol 34: 15011516.[Crossref]
  27. Odhiambo CO, Otieno W, Adhiambo C, Odera MM, Stoute JA, , 2008. Increased deposition of C3b on red cells with low CR1 and CD55 in a malaria-endemic region of western Kenya: implications for the development of severe anemia. BMC Med 6: 23.[Crossref]
  28. Lamikanra AA, Brown D, Potocnik A, Casals-Pascual C, Langhorne J, Roberts DJ, , 2007. Malarial anemia: of mice and men. Blood 110: 1828.[Crossref]
  29. Ehrhardt S, Burchard GD, Mantel C, Cramer JP, Kaiser S, Kubo M, Otchwemah RN, Bienzle U, Mockenhaupt FP, , 2006. Malaria, anemia, and malnutrition in African children—defining intervention priorities. J Infect Dis 194: 108114.[Crossref]
  30. Ardiet DL, ., 2014. Patterns of malaria indices across three consecutive seasons in children in a highly endemic area of west Africa: a three times-repeated cross-sectional study. Malar J 13: 199.[Crossref]
  31. Dolan G, ter Kuile FO, Jacoutot V, White NJ, Luxemburger C, Malankirii L, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Nosten F, , 1993. Bed nets for the prevention of malaria and anaemia in pregnancy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87: 620626.[Crossref]
  32. Tsuang A, Lines J, Hanson K, , 2010. Which family members use the best nets? An analysis of the condition of mosquito nets and their distribution within households in Tanzania. Malar J 9: 211.[Crossref]
  33. Mutuku FM, Khambira M, Bisanzio D, Mungai P, Mwanzo I, Muchiri EM, King CH, Kitron U, , 2013. Physical condition and maintenance of mosquito bed nets in Kwale County, coastal Kenya. Malar J 12: 46.[Crossref]
  34. Noor AM, Kirui VC, Brooker SJ, Snow RW, , 2009. The use of insecticide treated nets by age: implications for universal coverage in Africa. BMC Public Health 9: 369.[Crossref]
  35. Zhou G, Li JS, Ototo EN, Atieli HE, Githeko AK, Yan G, , 2014. Evaluation of universal coverage of insecticide-treated nets in western Kenya: field surveys. Malar J 13: 351.[Crossref]
  36. Bouyou-Akotet MK, Dzeing-Ella A, Kendjo E, Etoughe D, Ngoungou EB, Planche T, Koko J, Kombila M, , 2009. Impact of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the frequency of moderate to severe anaemia in children below 10 years of age in Gabon. Malar J 8: 166.[Crossref]
  37. Magalhaes RJ, Clements AC, , 2011. Mapping the risk of anaemia in preschool-age children: the contribution of malnutrition, malaria, and helminth infections in west Africa. PLoS Med 8: e1000438.[Crossref]
  38. Villalpando S, Shamah-Levy T, Ramírez-Silva CI, Mejía-Rodríguez F, Rivera JA, , 2003. Prevalence of anemia in children 1 to 12 years of age: results from a nationwide probabilistic survey in Mexico. Salud Publica Mex 45: 490498.[Crossref]
  39. Ewusie JE, Ahiadeke C, Beyene J, Hamid JS, , 2014. Prevalence of anemia among under-5 children in the Ghanaian population: estimates from the Ghana demographic and health survey. BMC Public Health 14: 626.[Crossref]
  40. Kitua AY, Smith TA, Alonso PL, Urassa H, Masanja H, Kimario J, Tanner M, , 1997. The role of low level Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in anaemia among infants living in an area of intense and perennial transmission. Trop Med Int Health 2: 325333.[Crossref]
  41. Gbotosho GO, Sowunmi A, Okuboyejo TM, Happi CT, Folarin OA, Michael OS, Adewoye EO, , 2011. Therapeutic efficacy and effects of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine coformulated or copackaged on malaria-associated anemia in children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southwest Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 813819.[Crossref]
  42. Sowunmi A, Akano K, Ayede AI, Ntadom G, Fatunmbi B, Aderoyeje T, Adewoye EO, , 2015. Temporal changes in haematocrit following artemisinin-based combination treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children. BMC Infect Dis 15: 454.[Crossref]
  43. Price RN, Simpson JA, Nosten F, Luxemburger C, Hkirjaroen L, ter Kuile F, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, White NJ, , 2001. Factors contributing to anemia after uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 614622.[Crossref]
  44. Sumari D, Mwingira F, Selemani M, Mugasa J, Mugittu K, Gwakisa P, , 2017. Malaria prevalence in asymptomatic and symptomatic children in Kiwangwa, Bagamoyo district, Tanzania. Malar J 16: 222.[Crossref]
  45. National Statistical Office/Malawi, ICF, 2017. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2015–2016. Zomba, Malawi: National Statistical Office and ICF.
  46. Grantham-McGregor S, Cheung YB, Cueto S, Glewwe P, Richter L, Strupp B, , 2007. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet 369: 6070.[Crossref]
  47. Molyneux DH, Nantulya VM, , 2004. Linking disease control programmes in rural Africa: a pro-poor strategy to reach Abuja targets and millennium development goals. BMJ 328: 11291132.[Crossref]
  48. Shankar AH, , 2000. Nutritional modulation of malaria morbidity and mortality. J Infect Dis 182: S37S53.[Crossref]
  49. Muller O, Traore C, Jahn A, Becher H, , 2003. Severe anaemia in west African children: malaria or malnutrition? Lancet 361: 8687.[Crossref]
  50. Bowie C, Purcell B, Shaba B, Makaula P, Perez M, , 2004. A national survey of the prevalence of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths in Malaŵi. BMC Infect Dis 4: 49.[Crossref]
  51. Chipeta MG, Ngwira B, Kazembe LN, , 2013. Analysis of schistosomiasis haematobium infection prevalence and intensity in Chikhwawa, Malawi: an application of a two part model. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2131.[Crossref]
  52. Poole H, Terlouw DJ, Naunje A, Mzembe K, Stanton M, Betson M, Lalloo DG, Stothard JR, , 2014. Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails. Parasit Vectors 7: 153.[Crossref]
  53. Brabin BJ, Prinsen-Geerligs PD, Verhoeff FH, Fletcher KA, Chimsuku LH, Ngwira BM, Leich OJ, Broadhead RL, , 2004. Haematological profiles of the people of rural southern Malawi: an overview. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98: 7183.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0335
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0335
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplemental Table

  • Received : 26 Apr 2017
  • Accepted : 23 Jun 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error