Volume 98, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Integrating public health interventions with antenatal clinic (ANC) visits may motivate women to attend ANC, thereby improving maternal and neonatal health, particularly for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. In 2009, in an integrated ANC/Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission program, we provided free hygiene kits (safe storage containers, water treatment solution, soap, and oral rehydration salts) to women at their first ANC visit and refills at subsequent visits. To increase fathers’ participation, we required partners’ presence for women to receive hygiene kits. We surveyed pregnant women at baseline and at 12-month follow-up to assess ANC service utilization, HIV counseling and testing (HCT), test drinking water for residual chlorine, and observe handwashing. We conducted in-depth interviews with pregnant women, partners, and health workers. We enrolled 106 participants; 97 (92%) were found at follow-up. During the program, 99% of pregnant women and their partners received HCT, and 99% mutually disclosed. Fifty-six percent of respondents had ≥ 4 ANC visits and 90% delivered at health facilities. From baseline to follow-up, the percentage of women who knew how to use (23% versus 80%, < 0.0001), had residual chlorine in stored water (0% versus 73%, < 0.0001), had confirmed use (0% versus 70%, < 0.0003), and demonstrated proper handwashing technique (21% versus 64% < 0.0001) increased. Program participants showed significant improvements in water treatment and hygiene, and high use of ANC services and HCT. This evaluation suggests that integration of hygiene kits, refills, and HIV testing during ANC is feasible and may help improve household hygiene and increase use of health services.


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  • Received : 20 Apr 2017
  • Accepted : 15 Jan 2018
  • Published online : 26 Mar 2018

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