Volume 98, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Blood samples from 805 students attending 42 elementary schools in Mopti, Sikasso, and Koulikoro regions, and Bamako district in Mali participated in a school water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G responses to several antigens/pathogens were assessed by a multiplex bead assay (MBA), and the recombinant T24H antigen was included. Of all students tested, 8.0% were positive to rT24H, but in some schools 25–30%. A cluster of 12 widespread school locations showed not only a relative risk of 3.23 for exposure and significantly higher IgG responses ( < 0.001) but also significantly lower elevation ( = 0.04) (m, above sea level) compared with schools outside the cluster. All schools at elevations < 425 m showed significantly higher IgG responses ( = 0.017) than schools at elevations ≥ 425 m. The MBA is an excellent serological platform that provides cost-effective opportunities to expand testing in serosurveys.


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  • Received : 13 Apr 2017
  • Accepted : 23 Jan 2018
  • Published online : 26 Mar 2018

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