Volume 97, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Cholera, caused by , remains a global threat to public health. In Myanmar, the availability of published information on the occurrence of the disease is scarce. We report here that cholera incidence in Mandalay generally exhibited a single annual peak, with an annual average of 312 patients with severe dehydration over the past 5 years (since 2011) and was closely associated with the rainy season. We analyzed cholera outbreaks, characterized 67 isolates of serogroup O1 in 2015 from patients from Mandalay, and compared them with 22 O1 isolates (12 from Mandalay and 10 from Yangon) in 2014. The isolates carried the classical cholera toxin B subunit (), the toxin-coregulated pilus A () of Haitian type, and repeat sequence transcriptional regulator () of El Tor type. Two molecular typing methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), differentiated the 89 isolates into seven pulsotypes and 15 MLVA profiles. Pulsotype Y15 and one MLVA profile (11, 7, 7, 16, 7) were predominantly found in the isolates from cholera outbreaks in Mandalay, 2015. Pulsotypes Y11, Y12, and Y15 with some MLVA profiles were detected in the isolates from two remote areas, Mandalay and Yangon, with temporal changes. These data suggested that cholera spread from the seaside to the inland area in Myanmar.


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  • Received : 10 Apr 2017
  • Accepted : 04 Jul 2017
  • Published online : 14 Aug 2017

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