Volume 97, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Infestation with var. is a common human parasitic affliction endemic in tropical developing countries. Scabies is transmitted by close person–person contact, and outbreaks have been reported in reception centers for asylum seekers. Scabies presents clinically as extremely pruritic excoriated papules and linear burrows in the skin. This infestation predisposes to bacterial skin infections that can result in serious complications affecting the kidneys and possibly the heart. Treatment of individuals with scabies and their close contacts involves the use of antiparasitic agents. First-line treatment is topical 5% permethrin cream. Community mass drug administration, followed by active case finding with targeted treatment, is a promising approach that can reduce the prevalence of both scabies and bacterial skin infections. Organizations such as the International Alliance for the Control of Scabies are advocating for the development of integrated disease control strategies in an effort to decrease scabies infestation worldwide.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Hay RJ, Steer AC, Engelman D, Walton S, , 2012. Scabies in the developing world—its prevalence, complications, and management. Clin Microbiol Infect 18: 313323. [Google Scholar]
  2. Romani L, Steer AC, Whitfeld MJ, Kaldor JM, , 2015. Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis 15: 960967. [Google Scholar]
  3. Mason DS, Marks M, Sokana O, Solomon AW, Mabey DC, Romani L, Kaldor J, Steer AC, Engelman D, , 2016. The prevalence of scabies and impetigo in the Solomon Islands: a population-based survey. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004803. [Google Scholar]
  4. Beeres D, Omansen TF, Heidema A, Cornish D, Vonk M, Stienstra Y, , 2016. Abstract OLB18. Scabies Amongst Asylum Seekers: Prevalence and Effect of the Scabies Hygiene Programme. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Available at: http://www.escmid.org/escmid_publications/escmid_elibrary/?q=scabies&L=0&x=0&y=0. Accessed February 20, 2017.
  5. Wollina U, Gaber B, Mansour R, Langner D, Hansel G, Koch A, , 2016. Dermatologic challenges of health care for displaced people. Lessons from a German emergency refugee camp. Our Dermatol Online 7: 136138. [Google Scholar]
  6. Kuhne A, Gilsdorf A, , 2016. Infectious disease outbreaks in centralized homes for asylum seekers in Germany from 2004–2014. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 59: 570577. [Google Scholar]
  7. Mounsey KE, Murray HC, King M, Oprescu F, , 2016. Retrospective analysis of institutional scabies outbreaks from 1984 to 2013: lessons learned and moving forward. Epidemiol Infect 144: 24622471. [Google Scholar]
  8. Engelman D, Kiang K, Chosidow O, McCarthy J, Fuller C, Lammie P, Hay R, Steer A, Members of the International Alliance for The Control of Scabies, , 2013. Toward the global control of human scabies: introducing the international alliance for the control of scabies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2167. [Google Scholar]
  9. Mika A, Reynolds SL, Pickering D, McMillan D, Sriprakash KS, Kemp DJ, Fischer K, , 2012. Complement inhibitors from scabies mites promote streptococcal growth—a novel mechanism in infected epidermis? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1563. [Google Scholar]
  10. Swe PM, Zakrzewski M, Kelly A, Krause L, Fischer K, , 2014. Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: e2897. [Google Scholar]
  11. Parks T, Smeesters PR, Steer AC, , 2012. Streptococcal skin infection and rheumatic heart disease. Curr Opin Infect Dis 25: 145153. [Google Scholar]
  12. Anderson KL, Strowd LC, , 2017. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of scabies in a dermatology office. J Am Board Fam Med 30: 7884. [Google Scholar]
  13. Micali G, Lacarrubba F, Verzi AE, Chosidow O, Schwartz RA, , 2016. Scabies: advances in noninvasive diagnosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004691. [Google Scholar]
  14. Marks M, Taotao-Wini B, Satorara L, Engelman D, Nasi T, Mabey DC, Steer AC, , 2015. Long term control of scabies fifteen years after an intensive treatment programme. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9: e0004246. [Google Scholar]
  15. Romani L, 2015. Mass drug administration for scabies control in a population with endemic disease. N Engl J Med 373: 23052313. [Google Scholar]
  16. Mounsey KE, Bernigaud C, Chosidow O, McCarthy JS, , 2016. Prospects for moxidectin as a new oral treatment for human scabies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004389. [Google Scholar]
  17. Currie BJ, Harumal P, McKinnon M, Walton SF, , 2004. First documentation of in vivo and in vitro ivermectin resistance in Sacrcoptes scabiei. Clin Infect Dis 39: e8e12. [Google Scholar]
  18. Engelman D, Fuller LC, Solomon AW, McCarthy JS, Hay RJ, Lammie PJ, Steer AC, , 2016. Opportunities for integrated control of neglected tropical diseases that affect the skin. Trends Parasitol 32: 843854. [Google Scholar]
  19. Mitja O, 2017. Integrated control and management of neglected tropical skin diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11: e0005136. [Google Scholar]
  20. Alasaad S, 2011. Sarcoptes-world molecular network (sarcoptes-WMN): integrating research on scabies. Int J Infect Dis 15: e294e297. [Google Scholar]
  21. Hotez PJ, , 2014. Neglected tropical skin diseases. Their global elimination through integrated mass drug administration. JAMA Dermatol 150: 481482. [Google Scholar]
  • Received : 24 Mar 2017
  • Accepted : 08 Aug 2017
  • Published online : 02 Oct 2017

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error